Bibliography

Collected here are some of the sources that we have used for the compilation of this website as well as a collection of scholarly works, books, articles, and films on the subject of the Komagata Maru.

South Asian Canadian Archival and Literature References

Norman Buchignani

 

South Asian Publications:

1985 Continuous Journey: A Social History of South Asians in Canada (co-author D. Indra, with Ram Srivastava) Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 250 pp. translated as Le voyage continu: histoire sociale des Sud-Asiatiques au Canada (1989).

 

1982 Perceptions of Racial Discrimination in Calgary: A Situation Report. Prepared for the Multiculturalism Directorate, Secretary of State, 167 pp. This was a survey of community perceptions of racial discrimination and institutional responses to it.

 

1983 Brief submitted to the Special Parliamentary Committee on the Participation of Visible Minorities in Canadian Society. 21 pp. This was considered by the Committee’s staff to be a pivotal brief, shifting their emphasis from prejudice to discrimination as the key issue.

 

1985 Demographic Analysis of South Asians in Canada. Prepared for the Secretary of State (Ottawa), 50 pp., with 250 pp. of statistical tables. This report was based on a special run of the 1981 census.

 

1977 A Review of the Historical and Sociological Literature on East Indians in Canada. Canadian Ethnic Studies 9(1):86-108.

1978 Accommodation, Adaptation, and Policy: Aspects of the South Asian Experience in Canada. In K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Asians in Canada. Guelph: University of Guelph, pp. 30-71.

1979 Social Identity Formation and Interpretation: Recent East Indian Immigration to British Columbia. In J. Elliott, ed., Two Nations, Many Cultures: Ethnic Groups in Canada. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall, pp. 325-37.

1979 Social Identities and Their Interpretation: Fijian East Indians in British Columbia. In G. Hirabayashi and K.V. Ujimoto, eds., Proceedings of the First Colloquium on Asians in Canada. Guelph: University of Guelph, pp. 163-198.

1979 Future Prospects of Research on Asian Canadians. In K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Asians in a Multicultural Society. Ottawa: Secretary of State, pp. 284-290.

1980 South Asians and the Ethnic Mosaic: An Overview. Canadian Ethnic Studies 11(1):48-68.

1980 Accommodation, Adaptation, and Policy: Dimensions of the South Asian Experience in Canada. In K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Visible Minorities and Multiculturalism: Asians in Canada. Scarborough, Ontario: Butterworths, pp. 121-150.

 

1980 The Political Evolution of Sikhs in Canada before World War I. Indian Journal of Political Science 41(3):379-412.

1981 The Political Organization of South Asians in Canada, 1904-1920. In J. Dahlie and T. Fernando, eds., Ethnicity, Power, and Politics in Canada. Toronto: Methuen, pp. 202-232.

1981 The Social and Self Identities of Fijian Indians in Vancouver. Urban Anthropology 9(1):75-98.

1981 Inter-group Conflict and Community Solidarity: Sikhs and South Asian Fijians in Vancouver. Canadian Journal of Anthropology 1(2):149-157. (joint author: Doreen M. Indra).

1983 Determinants of Fijian Indian Social Organization in Canada. In G. Kurian and R. Srivastava, eds., Overseas Indians: A Study in Adaptation. New Delhi: Vikas, pp. 68-89.

1983 Some Comments on the Elimination of Racism in Canada. Canadian Ethnic Studies 15(2):118-124.

1984 South Asians in Canada: Accommodation and Adaptation. In R. Kannungo, ed., South Asians and the Canadian Mosaic. Montreal: Kala Bharati Foundation, pp. 157-180.

1985 Social Science Research on Asians in Canada. In K.V. Ujimoto and J. Naidoo, eds. Asian Canadians: Aspects of Social Change. Guelph: University of Guelph, pp. 1-29.

1985 South Asians in Alberta. In H. Palmer and T. Palmer, eds., The People of Alberta: Portraits of Cultural Diversity. Calgary: Western Producer, pp. 413-436.

1985 South Asians. Canadian Encyclopaedia. Edmonton: Hurtig, 3:1736-1737.

1985 Sikhism. Canadian Encyclopaedia. Edmonton: Hurtig, 3:1695-1696.

1986 The Komagata Maru Incident. Horizons Canada 5(51):1214-1219.

1987 Research on South Asians in Canada: Retrospect and Prospect. In Milton Israel, ed., The South Asian Diaspora in Canada: Six Essays. Toronto: Ontario Multicultural History Society, pp. 113-141.

1988 Conceptions of Sikh Culture in the Development of a Comparative Analysis of the Sikh Diaspora. In Joseph T. O’Connell, Milton Israel, and W. Oxtoby, with W.H. McLeod and J.S. Grewal, eds. Sikh Religion and History in the Twentieth Century. Toronto: South Asian Studies, University of Toronto, pp. 276-295.

1988 South Asians. Canadian Encyclopaedia. 2nd ed. Edmonton: Hurtig. 4:2048-50.

1988 Sikhism. Canadian Encyclopaedia. 2nd ed. Edmonton: Hurtig. 4:2000-1.

1989 Key Issues in Canadian-Sikh Ethnic and Race Relations, and Their Implications for the Study of the Sikh Diaspora (with Doreen Indra). In N.G. Barrier and V. Dusenbery, eds. The Sikh Diaspora. New Delhi: Manohar, and Columbia, Mo.: South Asia Press, pp. 141-184.

1989 Social Science Research on Asians in Canada. In P. Krishnan, ed., Status and Identity in a Pluralistic Society: Essays in Honour of Gordon K. Hirabayashi. Edmonton: Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, pp. 107-122.

1989 Contemporary Research on People of Indian Origins in Canada. Sociological Bulletin 38(1):71-93.

1991 South and Southeast Asians of Canada. In David Levinson, ed. Encyclopaedia of World Cultures: North America. vol. 1. published for the Human Relations Area Files by G.K. Hall-Macmillan, pp 321-324.

1996 Sikhism. Canadian Encyclopaedia. 3rd edition. (update of 1988 version).

1996 South Asians. Canadian Encyclopaedia. 3rd edition. (update of 1988 version).

 

South Asian Bibliography and Archival Materials

Adams, B. @i<et al> 1977 Ugandan Asians in Exile: Household and Kinship in the Resettlement Crisis. J. Comparative Family Studies 8(2): 167+178.

Ahluwahlia, M. and Kirpal Singh 1963 The Punjab's Pioneer Freedom Fighters. Bombay: Orient Longmans.

Ahmad, S.M. 1982 Psychological Barriers in Adaptation to a Multicultural Society. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Asian Canadians: Regional Perspectives. pp.316+328.

Ahmed, Mahbub 1978 Adaptations of Bangladeshis in Canada: A Case Study of Toronto. Paper presented at a seminar on "Social and Cultural Integration of Bangladeshis" at Carleton University. Mimeo 23pp.

Akoodie, M.A. 1980 Immigrant Students: A Comparative Assessment of Ethnic Identity, Self Concept and Locus of Control Amongst West Indian, East Indian and Canadian Students. D. Phil. Dissertation, Educational Theory, University of Toronto.

America+India Samachar 1910 Hira Singh, ed., Vancouver.

Ames, Michael M. and Joy Inglis 1968 Indian Immigrants in Canada. Indo+Canadian 3 (4): 2+6.

Ames, Michael M. and Joy Inglis 1973 Conflict and Change in British Columbia Sikh Family Life. B.C. Studies 20 (Winter): 15+49.

Andracki, Stanislaw 1958 The Immigration of Orientals into Canada with Special Reference to Chinese. Ph.D. Dissertation, History Department, McGill University. (Reprinted in 1978, New York: Arno Press).

Angus H.F. 1931 Under+Privileged Canadians. Queens Quarterly, 38: 445+460.

Angus H.F. 1937 The Legal Status in British Columbia of Residents of Oriental Race and their Descendents. @UN(In) N.A.M. Mackenzie, ed., The Legal Status of Aliens in Pacific Countries. London: Oxford University Press. pp.77+87.

Angus H.F. 1941 The Effect of the War on Oriental Minorities in Canada. Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 7(4): 506+516.

Angus H.F. 1946 Asiatics in Canada. Pacific Affairs 19(4): 402+408.

Angus H.F. 1947 East Indians in Canada. International Journal 2(1): 47+50.

Angus H.F. 1953 Asian Minorities in Canada. United Asia 5(5): 281+285.

Angus H.F. 1970 People of East Indian Origin. Encyclopedia Canadiana 3: 331+2.

Angus H.F. ++++ Canada and the Far East 1940+1953.

Angus, H.F. 1931 The Legal Status in British Columbia of Residents of Oriental Race and Their Descendents. Canadian Bar Review, 9 (1): 1+12.

Anonymous 1907 Race Riots on the Pacific Coast. Outlook 87: 89.

Anonymous 1908 The Hindu in America. American Review of Reviews 37: 604+605.

Anonymous 1912 The Position of Hindus in Canada. British Columbia Magazine 8: 664+668. Anonymous 1913 Hindu Grievances in Canada. Open Court 27: 703+704.

Anonymous 1914a A Contemporary Description of the Komogata Maru Incident. Canadian Annual Review, Toronto. pp.115+119.

Anonymous 1914b Canada's Rejection of the Hindu. The Literary Digest 49 (August 8): 226.

Anonymous 1914c Sikhs Besieging Canada. The Literary Digest 49 (July 18): 95+96.

Anonymous 1914d Veto of Canada. Living Age 282: 310+312.

Anonymous 1923a Asiatic Immigration into Canada. Round Table (March): 398+404.

Anonymous 1923b Indian Rights in the United States. Nation 117: 447.

Anonymous 1934 Strange Gods come to Canada. Macleans Magazine 47(11): 44+45.

Appathuri, E.R. 1980 The Sri Lankans in Eastern Canada. Secretary of State, Ottawa. Mimeo.

Aryan 1911+1912 Volumes 1 (1) to 2 (9). Sundar Singh ed., Vancouver.

Ashworth, M. 1978 The Segregation of Immigrant Children in British Columbia Schools. Working Teacher 1(3).

Awan, Sadiq 1975 A Study of the Problems Associated with the Education of the People of Pakistani Origin in Canada, 1947+1970. M.A. Thesis, Bishop's University.

Awan, Sadiq 1976 The People of Pakistani Origin in Canada. Ottawa: Canada+Pakistani Association of Ottawa+Hull.

Awan, Sadiq 1980 The People of Pakistani Origin in Canada, Their First Twenty+Five Years. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Visible Minorities and Multiculturalism. Toronto: Butterworths.

Awan, Sadiq, ed. 1976b Proceedings of the First National Multicultural Symposium Organized by the Canada+Pakistani Association of Ottawa+Hull. Ottawa: mimeo.

Bagai, Leona B. 1967 The East Indians and Pakistanis in America. Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Co.

Bains, Nina 1974 A Brief Study of the East Indian (Sikh) Community of Victoria. Victoria: mimeo. 30pp.

Bannerjee, Kalyan Kumar 1964 East Indian Immigration into America: Beginnings of Indian Revolutionary Activity. Modern Review 116: 355+356.

Bannerjee, Kalyan Kumar 1969 Indian Freedom Movement: Revolutionaries In America. Calcutta: Jijnasa.

Bannerjee, Nipa 1977 Students from India in Canadian Universities. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto.

Basran, Gurcharn S. 1976 University Research on East Indian+Canadians: A Preliminary Checklist. Canadian Ethnic Studies. 5(1+2): 41+46.

Beck, Brenda 1981 The Use of Metaphor in Ethnic Research: Variations in the Concept of Ethnicity. Paper for CESA Conference.

Beck, Brenda 1982 Perceptions des relations parentales entre parent et enfant chez des immigrants au Canada:Variations selon qu'ils proviennent d'Inde, du Japon et de Hongrie. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Asian Canadians: Regional Perspectives. pp.207+221.

Beck, Brenda 1983a Bread Crumbs or Yeast: Indo+Canadian Popular Culture and its Growth Potential. University of British Columbia.

Beck, Brenda 1983b Immigrants, Metaphors and Shifting Cultural Frameworks. Typescript. 23pp.

Beck, Brenda 1987 Bread Crumbs or Yeast: Indo+Canadian Popular Culture and its Growth Potential. @b(In) M. Israel, ed. The South Asian Diaspora in Canada. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, pp. 59+72.

Berry, John, @i<et al> 1977 Multiculturalism and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada. Ottawa: Information Canada.

Bhargava, Gura 1984 Advertised Mate Choices of South Asian Immigrants in North America: A Study of Changing Ethnic Identity. Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association 19th Annual Meetings.

Bhatti, Bonnie 1979 A Research Study: A Comparison of the Levels of Differentiation of Self in East Indian and non+East Indians. M.A. Thesis, School of Social Work, University of British Columbia.

Bhatti, F.M. 1974 East Indian Immigration into Canada: 1905+1973. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Surrey.

Bhatti, F.M. 1980 A Comparative Study of British and Canadian Experience with South Asian Immigration. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Visible Minorities and Multiculturalism. Toronto: Butterworths's. pp.43+63.

Blaise, Clark 1987 The Sorrow and the Terror: The Haunting Legacy of the Air India Disaster. Markham, Ont.: Viking Press (evidently also out in Penguin).

Bogardus, Emory S. 1928 Immigration and Race Attitudes. New York: D.C. Heath and Co.

Boggs, T.H. 1926 The Orientals on the Pacific Coast. Queens Quarterly 33: 311+324.

Bopp, Franz, defendant: U.S. vs F. Bopp et al. 1917 District Court of the U.S., Southern Division of the Northern District of California before Hon. Wm. C. Van Fleet. (The Ghadar Trial). microfilm (seven reels) University of British Columbia.

Bose, Arun Coomer 1965 Indian Nationalist Agitations in the United States and Canada till the Arrival of Hardayal in 1911. Journal of Indian History 43: 227+239.

Bose, Arun Coomer 1971 Indian Revolutionaries Abroad, 1905+1922. Patna Bharati Bhawan.

Bose, Subhindra 1914 Exclusion of the Indians from America. Modern Review 15: 642.

Bose, Subhindra 1915 American Impressions of a Hindu Student. Forum 53: 251+257.

Bose, Subhindra 1919 Asian Immigration into the United States. Modern Review 25: 521+526.

Bowerman, Jennifer 1980 East Indians in Alberta: A Human Rights Viewpoint. @un(In) G. Hirabayashi and K.V. Ujimoto, eds., Visible Minorities and Multiculturalism: Asians in Canada. Toronto: Butterworths, pp. 181+192.

Bradfield, Helen H. 1970 The East Indians of Yuba City: A Study of Acculturation. M.A. Dissertation, California State University, Sacramento.

Brand, Dionne and Krisantha Sri Bhaggiyadatta 1986 Rivers have Sources, Trees have Roots: Speaking of Racism. Toronto: Cross Cultural Communications Centre, 192 pp.* Canada, race, prejudice, discrimination, South Asians,

Braun, Wendy 1983 Multiculturalism Practice from Ideals to Reality, An Examination of Work with an East Indian Couple. M.A. Thesis, School of Social Work, University of British Columbia.

Bristow, M. and B. Adams and C. Periera 1975 Uganda Asians in Britain, Canada and India: Some Characteristics and Resources. New Community 4(2): 155+166.

British Columbia Legislative Assembly 1927 Report on Oriental Activities within the Province. Victoria: Charles Banfield.

British Columbia Public Service Bulletin 1928 East Indian Population... (April+May):3. Victoria, Queen's Printer.

British Columbia. Dept. of Labour 1917+1946 Annual Report. Victoria: Queen's Printer.

British Columbia. Prov. Library and Archives 1957 Ethnic Groups in B.C.: A Selected Bibliography based on a checklist of Material in the Provincial Library and Archives. Victoria.

Broad, Isabella Ross 1913 An Appeal for Fair Play for the Sikhs in Canada. Victoria: Victoria Society of Friends of the Hindu.

Brown, Emily C. 1975 Har Dayal: Hindu Revolutionary and Rationalist. Tucson: Arizona Univ. Press.

Brown, Giles T. 1941 The Hindu Conspiracy and the Neutrality of the United States. M.A. Dissertation History Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

Brown, Giles T. 1948 The Hindu Conspiracy, 1914+1917. Pacific Historical Review 17: 299+300.

Buchanan, R.F. 1908 The West and the Hindu Invasion. Overland Monthly 51: 308+313.

Buchignani, Norman 1976 Fijians as 'Punjabs': the Social and Self Identities of Fijian East Indians in Vancouver. Presentation WASA Annual Meeting, Calgary.

Buchignani, Norman 1976 The Weberian Thesis in India. Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 42: 17+33.

Buchignani, N. 1977a A Review of the Historical and Sociological Literature on East Indians in Canada. Canadian Ethnic Studies 9(1): 86+108.

Buchignani, N. 1977b Immigration, Establishment, and the Management of Ethnic Identity. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Sociology and Anthropology. Vancouver: Simon Fraser University.

Buchignani, Norman 1978 Accommodation, Adaptation, and Policy: Aspects of the South Asian Experience in Canada. @un(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Asians in Canada, pp. 30+71, Guelph: University of Guelph.

Buchignani, N. 1979a Recent East Indian immigration to British Columbia: Identity Formation among Fijians. @un(In) J. Elliott ed., Two Nations Many Cultures: Ethnic Groups in Canada. Scarborough: Prentice+Hall., pp. 325+337.

Buchignani, Norman 1979b The Effect of Canadian Immigration on the Political Economy of Fiji. @un(In) O. Mehmet, ed. Poverty and Social Change in Southeast Asia. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, pp. 265+283.

Buchignani, Norman 1979c Social Identities and Their Interpretation: Fijian East Indians in British Columbia. @un(In) G. Hirabayashi and K.V. Ujimoto, eds., Proceedings of the First Colloquium on Asians in Canada, pp. 163+198, Guelph: University of Guelph.

Buchignani, Norman 1980a South Asians and the Ethnic Mosaic: An Overview. Canadian Ethnic Studies 11(1):48+68.

Buchignani, Norman 1980b The Social and Self Identities of Fijian Indians in Vancouver. Urban Anthropology 9(1): 75+97.

Buchignani, Norman 1980c Accommodation, Adaptation, and Policy: Dimensions of the South Asian Experience in Canada. @un(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Visible Minorities and Multiculturalism: Asians in Canada, pp. 121+150 Scarborough, Ontario: Butterworths.

Buchignani, Norman 1980d Culture or Identity: Addressing Ethnicity in Canadian Education. McGill Journal of Education 15(1): 79+93.

Buchignani, Norman 1980d The Political Evolution of Sikhs in Canada before World War I. Indian Journal of Political Science 41(3): 379+412.

Buchignani, Norman 1982a Canadian Ethnic Research and Multiculturalism. Journal of Canadian Studies 17(1): 16+34.

Buchignani, Norman 1982b Perceptions of Racial Discrimination in Calgary: A Situation Report. Prepared for the Multiculturalism Directorate, Secretary of State, Ottawa. 167pp.

Buchignani, Norman 1983 Determinants of Fijian Indian Social Organization in Canada. @UN(In) G. Kurian and R. Srivastava, eds., Overseas Indians: A Study in Adaptation. pp. 68+89.

Buchignani, Norman 1984 South Asians in Canada: Accommodation and Adaptation. @UN(In) R. Kannungo, ed., South Asians and the Canadian Mosaic, pp. 157+180, Montreal: Kala Bharati Foundation.

Buchignani, Norman 1985a Social Science Research on Asians in Canada. @un(In) K.V. Ujimoto and J. Naidoo, eds. Asian Canadians: Aspects of Social Change, pp. 1+29, Guelph: University of Guelph.

Buchignani, Norman 1985b South Asians in Alberta. @un(In) H. Palmer and T. Palmer, eds., The People of Alberta: Portraits of Cultural Diversity. Calgary: Western Producer, pp. 413+436.

Buchignani, Norman 1985c South Asians. New Canadian Encyclopedia. Edmonton: Hurtig, 3:1736+1737.

Buchignani, Norman 1985d Sikhism. New Canadian Encyclopedia. Edmonton: Hurtig, 3: 1695+1696.

Buchignani, Norman 1985e A Demographic Analysis of South Asians in Canada. Prepared for the Secretary of State (Ottawa), 50 pp., with 250 pp. of statistical tables.

Buchignani, Norman 1986a An Estimate of the Sikh Population of Canada. mimeo.

Buchignani, Norman 1986b The Komagata Maru Incident. Horizons Canada 5(51):1214+1219.

Buchignani, Norman 1987a Fijian Indians in Vancouver: The Structural Determinants of a New Community. N.Y.: AMS Press. in press.

Buchignani, Norman 1987b Conceptions of Sikh Culture in the Development of a Comparative Analysis of the Sikh Diaspora. @un(In) M. Israel and J. O'Connell, eds., Sikh Religion and History in the Twentieth Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press., 35. pp. in press

Buchignani, Norman 1987c Social Science Research on South Asians and Canada: Retrospect and Prospect. @un(In), Milton Israel, ed., The South Asian Diaspora in Canada. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, pp. 113+141.

Buchignani, Norman and Doreen Indra 1981a The Political Organization of South Asians in Canada. @un(In) J. Dahlie and T. Fernando, eds. Ethnicity, Power and Politics in Canada. Toronto: Methuen. pp. 202+232.

Buchignani, Norman and Doreen Indra 1981b Inter+group conflict and community solidarity: Sikhs and South Asian Fijians in Vancouver. Canadian Journal of Anthropology 1(2): 149+157.

Buchignani, Norman and Doreen Indra 1985 Continuous Journey: A Social History of South Asians in Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.

Buchignani, Norman and Doreen Marie Indra 1987 Key Issues in Canadian+Sikh Ethnic and Race Relations, and Their Implications for the Study of the Sikh Diaspora. @un(In) G. Barrier and V. Dusenbery, eds. The Sikh Diaspora. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. in press.

Button, R.A. 1964 Sikh Settlement in the Lower Mainland of B.C. (1904+1964). B.A. Graduating Essay, Dept. of Geography, University of British Columbia.

California. Government 1953 Report of the Senate Fact+Finding Committee of the Un+American Activities to the 1953 Regular California Legislature. Sacramento California State Printing Office. pp.213+246.

California. Government. State Board of Control 1922 California and the Oriental: Japanese, Chinese, and Hindus. Sacramento California: State Printing Office.

Campbell, Michael G. 1977 The Sikhs of Vancouver: A Case Study in Minority+Host Relations. M.A. Thesis, Political Science, University of British Columbia. Microfiche #34775

Canada and India 1915 Vol.1(1), July. 1(2), October. @UN(In) R.O. Pt.2 and Ontario Public Archives.

Canada and India 1915+16 Kartar Singh, ed., Toronto. (biweekly).

Canada India Committee 1915a A Call for Canadian Justice. Toronto.

Canada India Committee 1915b The Hindu Case. Toronto.

Canada India Committee 1916 India's Appeal to Canada or An Account of Hindu Immigration to the Dominion. Toronto.

Canada India Committee n.d. A Syllabus of Its Objectives, Principles and Procedure. Toronto.

Canada Pakistan Association of Ottawa+Hull 1976 A History of People of Pakistani Origin in Canada. Ottawa.

Canada. Board of Review (Immigration) on Charges Concerning Illegal Entry of Aliens into Canada. 1938a Interim report and Supplement. Vancouver: typescript.

Canada. Board of Review (Immigration) on Charges Concerning Illegal Entry of Aliens into Canada. 1938b Report, October 1938, Ottawa: King's Printer.

Canada, Department of Employment and Immigration, Research Projects Group 1977 Ugandan Asian Experience. Ottawa: Government Printers.

Canada. Department of Interior 1908 The East Indian in B.C.: A Proposal to send some to British Honduras. Dominion Archives. Pamphlet 3413.

Canada. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Census Division. 1934 Orientals, 10 years of age or over, Gainfully Employed in the Province of British Columbia Census, 1931 (7th Census of Canada). Bulletin 41.

Canada. Employment and Immigration 1977 Ugandan Asian Experience. Ottawa: Government Printers.

Canada. House of Commons Special Parliamentary Committee on Visible Minorities in Canadian Society 1984 Equality Now!. Ottawa: Queen's Printer.*race, ethnicity, Canada, discrimination, prejudice, policy

Canada. Manpower and Immigration 1970 Immigration, Migration, and Ethnic Groups in Canada: A Bibliography of Research 1964+1968. Ottawa: Information Canada.

Canada. Manpower and Immigration 1975a The Immigration Program. Ottawa: Information Canada.

Canada. Manpower and Immigration 1975b Three Years in Canada. Ottawa: Information Canada.

Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs 1906 Toronto: Annual Review Publishing Co. pp.285, 295+96. 1907 pp.284+286, 289, 294+296 1908 pp.119+120 1914 pp.116+119 1922 pp.198+203 1924 pp.115+119

Canadian India Times 1968+ Islington, Ontario (biweekly). Previously India Times (1967+8).

Canadian Sikh 1961+3 Vol.1(1) to 3(1). Richmond, B.C. Gian Singh, ed.

Carter, Don 1951 Our Sikh Neighbors. Vancouver Sun. Sept. 22, Magazine Section: 6+7.

Cassin, A. Marguerite 1977 Class and Ethnicity: The Social Organization of Working Class East Indians in Vancouver. M.A. Thesis. University of British Columbia.

Cassin, A. Marguerite and A. Griffith 1981 Class and Ethnicity: Producing the Difference that Counts. Canadian Ethnic Studies 8(1): 109+130.

Ch'eng, Tien+Fang 1931 Oriental Immigration in Canada. Shanghai: Commercial Press.

Chadney, James G. 1975 The Joint Family as a Structure and Process. Journal of Social Thought. 1(1): 17+22.

Chadney, James G. 1976 The Vancouver Sikhs: An Ethnic Community in Canada. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University.

Chadney, James G. 1977 Demography, Ethnic Identity and Decision+making: The Case of the Vancouver Sikhs. Urban Anthropology 6(3):187+204.

Chadney, James 1984 The Sikhs of Vancouver. New York: AMS Press.

Chakraverti, Robindra C. 1968 The Sikhs of El Centro: A Study in Social Integration. Ph.D. Dissertation University of Minnesota.

Chandra, K.V. 1973 Racial Discrimination in Canada. San Francisco: R and E Research Associates.

Chandra, Ram 1916 Exclusion of Hindus in America due to British Influence. San Francisco: Ghadr Publishing Co.

Chandresekhar, S. 1944 Indian Immigration in America. Far East Survey 13: 138+143.

Chandresekhar, S. 1945a The Indian Community in the United States. Far East Survey 14: 147+149.

Chandresekhar, S. 1945b Indian Emigration to America. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chawla, Saroj 1971 Indian Children in Toronto: A Study in Socialization. M.A. Thesis, Sociology. York University, Toronto.

Corbett, David C. 1957 Canada's Immigration Policy: A Critique. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Coward, Harold and David Goa 1983 Religious Experience of the South Asian Diaspora in Canada. Paper given at "Research on the South Asian Diaspora", Graduate Centre for South Asian Studies, University of Toronto.

Dabydeen, C. 1980 Compromise and Self+Expression: Problems of the Third World Writer in Canada. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Visible Minorities and Multiculturalism. Toronto: Butterworths. pp.329+334.

Dadabhay, Yusuf 1954 Circuitous Assimilation Among Rural Hindustanis in California. Social Forces 33: 138+141.

Daniels, Roger 1974 American Historians and East Asian Immigrants. Pacific Historical Review 43: 449+472.

Dardar, Nari P. 1963 The Treatment of India in the American Press, A Case Study. M.A. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Darlings, Malcolm Lyall 1928 The Punjab Peasant in Prosperity and Debt. London: Oxford University Press.

Das, Rajani Kant 1923 Hindustani Workers on the Pacific Coast. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Das, Taraknath 1909 An Open Letter to Count Leo Tolstoy in Reply to his "Letter to a Hindoo", New York: Free Hindustani. 47pp.

Das, Taraknath 1912 Our Welcome to the Chinese Republic. Span of Life 5(3).

Das, Taraknath 1924 What is at the Back of the Anti+Asianism of the Anglo+Saxon World? Modern Review 35: 262+268.

Das, Taraknath 1931 India in World Politics. Calcutta: Sarasvaty Press.

Dayal, Har 1911 India in America. The Modern Review. 10 (July): 1+11.

Denton, J. 1975 Indian Immigrants and Impression Management of Ethnic Stigma. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 12: 65+71.

Deodhar, Shyama 1954 The Treatment of India in American Social Studies Textbooks, 1921+1952. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan.

Deol, G.S. 1966 Voyage of the Komogata Maru and the Ghadr Movement. People's Path 2(8): 7+19.

Deol, G.S. 1969 The Role of the Ghadr Party in the Indian National Movement. Jullundur: Sterling Publishers.

Dhami, Sahdu Singh 1943 The Sikhs and their Religion: A Struggle for Democracy. Vancouver: Khalsa Diwan Society.

Dhami, Sahdu Singh 1969 Discovering the New World. Queen's Quarterly 76: 200+212.

Dharmavira 1970 Lala Har Dayal and the Revolutionary Movement of His Times. New Delhi: Indian Book Company.

Dignan, D.K. 1971 Hindu Conspiracy in Anglo+Indian Relations. Pacific Historical Review 40: 57+77.

Dodd, Balbinder Singh 1972 Social Change in Two Overseas Sikh Communities. B.A. Honours Essay, Sociology Department, University of British Columbia.

Dodd, W.D. 1907 The Hindu in the Northwest. World Today 13: 1157+1160.

Dossa, Parin 1983 The Shi'a+Isma'ili Muslim Community in British Columbia. @UN(In) Charles P. Anderson @i<et al>, eds., Circle of Voices. British Columbia: Oolichan Books. pp.232+239.

Dossa, Parin 1985 Ritual and Daily Life: Transmission and Interpretation of the Ismaili Tradition in Vancouver. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia.

*Duggal, Prakash V. 1969 The Treatment of India in Selected American Social Studies Textbooks, 1953+1968. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan.

Dusenbery, Verne A. 1980 Hierarchy, Equality and the Assertion of Sikh Identity in North America. Presentation at the 56th Annual Central States Anthropological Assoc. Meetings.

Dusenbery, Verne A. 1981 Canadian Ideology and Public Policy: The Impact on Vancouver Sikh Ethnic and Religious Adaptation. Canadian Ethnic Studies 8(3):101+120.

Dusenbery, Verne A. 1983 Gora Sikhs: A New Sikh Caste? Presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Association for Asian Studies. San Francisco.

Dusenbery, Verne A. 1987 Punjabi Sikhs and @b(Gora) Sikhs: Conflicting Assertions of Sikh Identity in North America. @b(In) J. O'Connell, M. Israel, and W.H. McLeod, eds. Sikh History and Religion in the Twentieth Century. Toronto: Centre for South Asian Studies, University of Toronto.

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The following are chiefly summaries of documents in the National Archives of Canada, supplemented by entries from period newspapers, other periodicals, and academic works. You will find a 3”x5” card in the files for each one of them, although save for correcting possible spelling errors in this file that arose when it was generated I suspect that there is little additional information to be found on the original cards. These entries are organized by year. 

\1640* /Portugese Indian/ In the 1640's there was a Portugese Indian in Mexico City selling cloth to Indians. AGN Indios XVI fol.29. Archivo General de la Nacion, Mexico City.

*1873* MI /The Sri Guru Singh Sahba/ apr-- Sri Guru Singh Sabha formed in 1873. In 1892 the Khalia College founded. This plus publications raised Sikh nationalism.

*1880's + 90's* AB /Very Early Protest/ apr-- Congress began around 1885. Liberals in England did not support Congress. (Ex: 1894, 1896, on manufactured cotton from India.) There were terrible famines of 1896-7, 1899-1900 and a plague in West India in 1896-7. Tilak (1893-5) led agitations in Bombay and was sentenced in 1897 to 18 months.

Pre *1905* Ma /Punjab Background/ apr-- Arya Samaj ferment occurs. In 1901 there was the separation of the North-Western frontier province by Lord Curzon. In the 1890's there was Bengali unrest. Lolmanya Tilak was in Maharashtra.

*1897* /Victoria's Diamond Jubilee/ It began June 22, 1897. Indian troops were guard of honor. HK,and Singapore Artillery Corps. and HK, and Singapore Royal Engineers were there.

*1902* LT 23 July /Troops Reviewed/ 14a4c 1200+ troops from India to be reviewed, included 10th Jats, 15 Sikhs and 33rd, 20th and 1st P. Infantry.

*1902* Weekly News Advertiser 10 June /A Military Spectacle/ p.1 Arriving in Vancouver on E. of Japan there were 43 HK (white) volunteers and 14 1st Chinese Volunteers. Also Kadir Bahadur, HK Regiment; Punjabis. All 18 were in the relief of Peking. They left on Thursday for Montreal and will sail on the 14th with the Canadian Contingent and will return through Vancouver. See notes.

*1902* VP 3 June /Turbaned Men Excite Interest/ p.1 22 men under Khan inspected by Major General Parsons. See notes.

*1902* VDT 3 June /Men Arrive from Hong Kong/ p.5 and p.8 83 men arrive from Hong Kong on the E. of Japan. (p.5). "Soldiers Arrive on Way to London", under Subadar Major Sardar Khan, including 50 Sikhs involved in the siege of Peking. (p.8).

*1902* VP 3 June /Men Arrive this Afternoon/ p.1 83 men arrive this afternoon. 22 Sikhs arriving but they did not list them. All white volunteers listed. (See also Colonist, s.d. p.3).

*1902* VP 4 June /Going through Drill/ p.2 14 went through drill with Major Kadir Bahadur.

*1902* VDT 4 June /Coronation Contingent/ p.8 Picture.

*1902* VDC 4 June /Soldiers of Empire/ p.6 Half page article with pictures. It mentions Sikhs by name.

*1908* Anon. /H. in America/ p.604 Came after "the siege of Peking". First U.S. Students arrive 1901-2. By 1908 17 students at UBC.

*1902* LT 16 July /HK and Singapore and Straits Contingents Reviewed/ 13a4a On page 25a and b, Straits settlement troops left-42 men and 4 officers. Malay State Guards in review.

*1902* VP 14 August /Governor of Hong Kong/ p.1 Governor of HK in town for Coronation and to return on E. of Japan.

*1902* VDT 8 September /On Way Home from Coronation/ p.3 Inspection in Ottawa by Gov. General Minto. Sardar Khan gets cross of India. Regiment will be disbanded upon return. Have been 5 years in HK. (Pictures)

*1902* VDC 9 September /Passing through Vancouver/ p.3 Passed through Vancouver the same time as the Borden contingent. 81 men returning on ship. p.8

*1902* Source% 4 September /The Punjabese are Returning/ p.1 On special train. Will sail on Monday on the E. of China.

*1902* Source% 8 September /Arrived Saturday/ p.1 The Punjabese arrived Saturday and left in special quarters on the E. of China. Will sail to HK via Yokohama and Nagasaki. p.7

*1902* VDC 7 September / E. of China Sails/ p.3 E. of China sails tomorrow with HK contingent.

*1904* LET 16 September /Robert Kerr (CPR) to J.A. Smart/ jan-1 B44786 His General Agent in HK is in Montreal. He says no inducement given. He paid full fare. He gives breakdown of those taken by CPR steamer from HK in 1904, (March to October): 28. In reply, Smart did not think other lines broy%.

*1904* LET 15 September /Thos. F. McGuigan, Van. City Clerk, to R.W. Scott, Sec. of State/ jan-1 337698 Transport companies are bringing them.They are brought under false pretenses and "are led to believe they can secure immediate employment are wages far beyond the dreams of an Oriental in his own country". They should punish those who bring them. Besides, they are unable to "stand this climate which is so different than their own..." Scott (23 September, 1904) is suprised. Refers matter to privy council.

*1904* LET 15 October /James A. Smart, Dep. Minister of Interior, to W.G. Parmelee, Dep. Minister of Trade and Commerce/ jan-1 339375 He passed the buck, he did not know of the problem.

*1904* LET 8 November /J.A. Smart to Robert Kerr, Passenger Traffic Mgr. CPR Co., Montreal/ jan-1 Did Kerr know of any "inducements" being offered to East Indians?

*1904* LET 19 October /W.G. Parmelee, Dep. Minister of Trade and Commerce, to J. Smart/ jan-1 9040 The department has a report of all passengers to B.C. In 1903: Vancouver 5, Victoria 5, 1904 to date 57. It did not go back earlier. They are not excluded under law, and cliams they are industrious, citing their beneficial effect on British Guiana and Trinidad.

*1904* E. Morse (written 1935) /Record of H. Immigration/ First immigration on record is July 1904, but 1901 census shows 81 H. are here. CPR attracted many.

*1905* SS /White Canada Forever/ apr Sorry.

*1905-10* MI /Arya Samaj in Punjab/ p.32 apr-- It is a great worry to the British. Lajpat Rai is principal leader.

*1905* MA /Punjab Background/ p.5 apr-- J. victory over Russians meant non-whites were white. There were increasing economic crises in Punjab.

*1905* MI /Partition of Bengal/ p.30 apr-- July 20, 1905, partition occurred. It much affected Punjab.

*1915* /The H. Case/ p.3,5 Suggests they first got work (1905) in Port Moody. The first WI and C. were in 1911.

*1906* LET 16 August /Dr. A.S. Munro to W.D. Scott/ jan-1 They first came in 1904. They had trouble getting over. They cleared land, worked on streets, handled lumber. The wages were $1.00 to $1.25. C. head tax and J. limitations made them necessary. Now every CPR boat has 40-50. Still, the demand is such that they get $1.75 -$2.00 in saw mills. They only do certain tasks like wood and roads, hence they are not as good as C. They are "the most litigous people I ever saw", and are a "cringing and servile people". They are most dangerous competitors with whites. He suggested a $100.00 head tax. 548729

*1906* VP 20 July /Expect H. to come in August/ jan-1 536999 Dr. Davichand says "The H. are gradually supplanting the J. and C. in the local sawmills. They will generally supplant the C. and J.This prompted W.D. Scott, Super. of Immigration to ask G.L. Milne, M.D. (Medical Inspector, Victoria) about it. He also asked A.S. Munro to inspect at Vancouver.

*1906* VP 20 July /Davidchand Soliciting Immigrants/ p.1 Davidchand is vocally active in soliciting immigrants. He is up for trial for defrauding recent immigrants of money to "get them landed". p.6

*1906* LET 16 August /Dr. G.L. Milne to W.D. Scott/ jan-1 536997 Many are likely to come, some of whom are not physically desireable. They are "not a strong race" and are "in many cases weak and lazy". They are not suited to C. and J. type of work, and they will not assimilate. They are more fitted to police and watchmen. They are "a quarrelsome and contentious race. They worked at the Vancouver Portland Cement Co. and their presence kept the C. in check and the wages at $1.50 a day. H. will go anywhere for better wages.

*1906* VP 3 August /Demands to Keep H. Out/ p.1 Vancouver Ts and LC met last night and demanded H. be kept out.

*1906* 6 August /Resolution of Victoria Ts and LC/ jan-1 On July 25 it was resolved "to place on record an emphatic protest against the proposed introduction into the Province of H. laborers and calls on the workingmen of B.C. to assist by every means in their power, in preventing this further attempt to flood the country with cheap Asiatic labor. Christian Sivert, Secretary.

*1906* LET 22 August /"W" in Health Department, Vancouver, to Alderman Williams/ jan-1 They are trying to control H. regarding health and renting very poor housing. City Hall was deluged with requests for work in winter of 1905.

*1906* LET 22 August /Thos. Wise, Secretary of Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners, to "The Honorable Minister of Emigration"/ jan-1 He petitioned him to stop H., like Australia and New Zealand did.

*1906* VP 9 August /Scott comes to Vancouver/ p.1 Scott is to come to Vancouver to investigate the H. invasion.

*1906* 26 November /Resolution by Council of City of Vancouver/ jan-1 Resolved to ask Federal Government to appoint a special Commission of Inquiry, and in the meantime, stop H. immigration.

*1906* LET 4 September /F. Buscomb, Mayor of Vancouver, to Hon. Minister of Interior/ jan-1 Telegram: 270 H. arrived on CPR ship without visible means of support. Stop it. Matter was referred to W.D. Scott by L.M. Fortier.

*1906* VP 4 September /H. Deported/ p.1 Many H. are deported for diseases, especially trachoma.

*1906* VP 1 September /Pots and Pans Story/ p.1 Regarding the famous pots and pans story, Buscomb wires Ottawa.

*1906* LET 5 September /L.M. Fortier to W.D. Scott, Super. of Immigration/ jan-1 Mckenzie King called on the question, and Mckenzie King will see the Premier on the subject.

*1906* VP 12 September /W.D. Scott in Vancouver/ jan-1 W.D. Scott is in Vancouver, and obfuscates government response . The same day the world got the full headline "Will do Utmost to Stop the H. Invasion".

*1906* VP 18 September /Employers discuss H./ p.1 Employers discuss the H. with Scott.

*1906* VDC 16 September /Editorial/ jan-1 As subjects of the British Empire, they should not be discriminated against. To do so would cause unrest in India. Still, we should induce more British and Northern Europeans to come.

*1906* LET 10 October /Lord Elgin to Lord Grey/ jan-1 Elgin has been telgraphed by Mayor Buscomb and now requests particulars from Canada.

*1906* VP 19 September /H. Not Wanted/ p.1 R.G. MacPherson and W.A. Gilliher, (both MP's) told Laurier that H. were not wanted.

*1906* OFP 22 September /Editorial/ jan-1 They are "British Subjects and are therefore entitled to British freedom". However the Indian government should warn them not to come.

*1906* Paper% 19 September /How H. Are Attracted to Canada/ p.3 jan-1 Many go to HK then go to Canada. Circulars are posted in India regarding Canada.

*1906* LET 21 September /A.Plow, Deputy Head, on Geological Survey of Canada Statement, to Nanabhai Dayabhai Daru, Barrister et.al, to the Under Secretary of State, India Office. jan-1 B.C. mostly "returned Punjabi Sikhs and Mohammedan Sepoys".

*1906* VDC 6 October /H. Returned to Vancouver/ jan-1 A number of H. returned to Vancouver having walked from the Cariboo. They could not, or would not work.

*1906* VDC 13 October /H. in Great Distress/ jan-1 H. are in great distress in Victoria, as none speak English.

*1906* VP 6 October /H. back to Vancouver/ p.1 The cold drove the H. from the Cariboo.

*1906* VP 15 October /Guarding Immigrant Sheds/ p.1 City police are guarding immigrant sheds to prevent H. from getting out. E. of Japan arrived with 100 H. on board.

*1906* LET 15 October /A.S. Monro to W.D. Scott/ jan-1 Telegram: 125 arrive on ship, each has about $25.00. Should they land? Scott replies, yes.

*1906* VDT /An Investigation from Allahabad/ jan-1 T.C. Mazoomdar arrived from Hooghly district of Bengal. The S.A. already here are 900 in Vancouver, 50 in Victoria and 15 from San Francisco. It seems all are Punjabi Sikhs. He claims that they came independent of any schemes. He will spend 2 months in Canada. 150 were sent back by Immigration. 50 are "starving in HK" without the money to go home. Plans to go to U of California, Berkeley, in engineering.

*1906* VP 17 October /Vote Scare/ p.1 There is a vote scare, but they are British subjects.

*1906* Hansard /Mr. Smith to Oliver/ jan-1 2,193 in B.C. to date. 100 were deported for trachoma, 8 were public charges and the rest had eye conditions.

*1906* LET 7 November /R.G. MacPherson , MP, to Frank Oliver/ jan-1 850 to arrive in 2 weeks, please have Order in Council passed to restrict them. Oliver replied: he cannot, but will warn H.K. in India's government.

*1906* LET 14 November /Shaughenessy to F. Oliver/ jan-1 He claims no solicitation of H. Try to check for disease.

*1906* VP 12 November /CPR Police Against Vancouver City Police/ p.1 CPR police are to be out against Vancouver police regarding H. arrival. Tartar with almost 800 soon to come.

*1906* VP 15 November /H. Ransack House/ p.1 H. ransack a house, leaving a woman for dead. The woman is later found to be white.

*1906* LET /Dr. G.L. Milne to Dr. P.M. Bryce, Chief Medical Inspector, Ontario/ jan-1 Telegram: recommend transport companies limit number of H.

*1906* VP 17 November /H. Sleep Outside/ p.12 H. are sleeping outside. Pictures accompany article.

*1906* LET 17 November /R. Monro to W.D. Scott/ jan-1 Telegram: 500 have arrived. They cannot rent housing, as none is vacant or available. 200 slept outside last night.

*1906* LET 17 November /G.L. Milne to Scott/ jan-1 368 arrived with not place for them, a third of them have only $15.00.

*1906* LET 20 November /Scott to Shaughnessy/ jan-1 Government not responsible, deport. Minister Oliver replies with approval.

*1906* LET 20 November /Shaughnessy to Oliver/ jan-1 Stick it.

*1906* VP 29 October /Hunger/ p.1, p.31, p,9 Stories of H. hunger.

*1906* 19 November /Saskatchewan Executive Committee of Ts and LC of Canada, Moosejaw, to Hon. Secretary of State for the Colonies/ jan-1 Ban H.

*1906* LET 24 November /G. Halse, Acting Mayor of Vancouver; Col. Falk Warren; A.E. Munro; and F.C. Wade to Laurier/ jan-1 Telegram: 800 are out of work and inhabitants refuse them food and fuel.

*1906* VP 24 November /Eviction of H./ p.1 Meeting held in mayor's office decides to evict H. resident in Vancouver and send them to Greenwood Cannery. Fully 600 H. have been contracted for rail work and will leave area shortly. M. Khan is helping in the mass move. and *1906* LET 27 November /Oliver to Munro/ jan-1 Munro is not authorized to pay for housing. If they have no money, deport.

*1906* LET 26 November /Monro to Scott/ jan-1 He rented a cannery at Eburne, 6 miles away. 200 are now there, but could have 500. The cost is $50.00 per month, $500.00 to make it a decent place. He expects all to have work on the railway within the month.

*1906* VP 23 November /H. Thrown Out/ p.1 Over 100 H. thrown out of lodging in South Vancouver by authorities, due to overcrowded housing rented by Attam S. They spent the night in the open. Mr. H.A. Vogel of South Vancouver took many in. At the same time other men were working at Eburne on the old cannery, following Monro's orders. To house 500 of them ar the Greenwood Cannery.

*1906* VP 1 December /Desertion of Eburne Cannery/ p.1 Most have deserted the Eburne Cannery, due to bad conditions.

*1906* VP 7 December /Arsonist/ p.1 The shack of Mr. Vogel, the residence of 15 H. was burned by an arsonist. A reward is offered.

*1906* LET 11 December /Dominion (U.K.) to Interior, Ottawa/ jan-1 Are 2000 Sikhs without occupation in Canada? Oliver replies, yes.

*1906* LET 12 December /Saint Nihal Singh to Oliver/ jan-1 From Ottawa, he notes interview with Oliver. He is willing to assist department with information on H. He does not want remuneration.

*1906* November /Saint Nihal Singh/ It is less than 5 years since he first came. In 2 weeks he was assisting people off boats. Most had come from India directly.

*1906* VP 19 September /Mohammed Khan/ p.1 Mohammed Khan an Immigant of long standing is helping settle new arrivals.

*1906* LET 26 November /Milne to Scott/ jan-1 Telegram: no H. boat will arrive till Christmas. All are now employed, none on relief. 40 sailed to California.

*1906* VDC 29 December /H. on Strike/ jan-1 H. go on strike at the Union Mines, first for $1.50, then for $2.00 Milne says absolutely no women have come (to Victoria?)

*1906* VP 29 December /H. Strike in Nanaimo/ P.1 H. strike in Nanaimo, for $1.50, then $2.00. Told to buzz off. It notes that a baby was born to a man working at or near the Cumberland mines.

*1906* VP 28 November /H. Leave/ p.1 Many H. are leaving for the states.

*1906* VP 30 November /H. Working on Railway/ p.1 H. are employed by the Great Northern Railway. 75 are leaving for Blaine. There is a plan to build a central residence for H. in Vancouver--for those working in the mills-- note barracks labour idea.

*1906* LET 27 December /Robertson to Scott/ jan-1 Report from Vancouver: Only one is liable for deportation. None are convicted of crime. 2193 arrived in 1906. 100 were turned back. 7 died, 345 went to U.S.

*1906* RG2,1 4 December /Report of Super. of Immigration/ mar-- The report of the Super. of Immigration on 2 November, states that immigration will be discouraged on the grounds of climate, hard work, costs, indigency. The letter to Laurier from G. Halse, Acting Mayor, Co. Falk Warren and A.S. Munro of 24 November, 1906, states 800 out of work. Locals will not give food and fuel. Monro writes letter to Scott, on 26 November, 1906, noting rental of a large cannery at Eburne. There is a dual problem: no housing available, and "unsanitary" housing.

*1906* LET 6 December /Scott to Munro/ jan-1 Mr. E. Blake Robertson, is being sent to Vancouver to check on the H. situation. He is the Assistant Super. of Immigration.

*9106* VP 15 November /H. want to join Militia/ p.19 H. want to join the militia. Millside community is the most prosperous, and the requests are coming from there. They have been drilling for 6 weeks. White militiamen will resist.

*1907* AB /Tarakanath Das/ apr-- Together with others he began the India Independence League in San Francisco. He went to Vancouver in late 1907 to do revolutionary work.

*1907* VP /More H. Arrive/ p.1 More H. arrived on the Monteagle.

*1907* PC 1663 14 November /MK to Vancouver/ mar MK is sent to Vancouver regarding H. and J. immigration.

*1907* /Victoria's First Temple/ A room with G% ran the Sahib in it.

*1907* /Victoria/ Many original and later Sikhs from V. Jandiala and V. Biduala. Only 1608 from Jandiala at present.

*1906* Ma /Taraknath Das/ apr-- Taraknath Das, Bengali, arrived in New York in July 1906. (p.18)

*1906* Hu /Gandhi and S. Krishnavarnia/ p.94-95 Krishnavarnia was far more radical than Gandhi. Bhai Parmanand was an Arya Samaj at India House. Note: later deported to Andaman Islands over the Ghadar activities.

*1906* Hu /John Morley, Lord Minto/ p.68 Secretary of State for India. He was an intellectual, and defender of Irish Home Rule. Lord Minto: conservative Viceroy. Secretary of State for the Colonies was Victor Alexander, 4th Earl of Elgin (once a porr Viceroy).

*1907* /Saint Nihal Singh/ p.387 It has been less than five years since the first came. They came from Chinese coastal towns and Straits settlements, etc. <100>

*1907* RG7 G21 V211 (#332A) feb11 On Asiatic E% League.

*1900* - *1920* AB /Rev. in Britain and France/ apr-- p.12 Indian sociologist , 1905, in London. p.15 S. Krishnavarnia, lawyer, 1905 Indian Home Rule League; India House. 1900, approximately 400 Indians in England. p.20 In 1907 the British began using spies. Two printers of I.Soc.% were imprisoned.

*1907* MI /1907 Punjab/ p.44, 47, 51 apr-- That year there was no monsoon, very high prices, high wages, plague heavy. 54000 deaths per week. Agit Singh and Lajpat Rai were very active. It was also the 50th anniversary of the 1857 mutiny.

*1907* SS /Sikh Riot/ apr-- Most remained indoors in Gudwara.

*1907* /Victoria, Vancouver Island Settlement/ The first worked on railways, CPR Victoria to Sidney, Victoria to Nanaimo. They settled in Chinatown. Present families are Mayo Br., Domans, Jawal Br., Jogindar Bains.

*1907* VP 4 November /H. in Explosion/ p.1 5 H. were blown to pieces in dynamite accident.

*1907* VP 24 October /Murder of a H./ p.1 An Englishman has been charged with the murder of a H. He was shot in a hotel room with no witnesses. Oct. 25, p.1; no fighting heard. Oct. 29, p.7; Danga S. is the victim. Man is to be held for trial.

*1906* Ma /Background Punjab/ p.6 apr-- Agitation in the canal colonies. Proposed restrictons on land alienations thought unfair by Sikhs. This marks the beginning of the rise of Ajit Singh and Lajpat Rai.

*1907* Ma /Background/ apr-- Ajit Singh very active in Rawalpindi. Ajit Singh and Lajpat Rai deported May 9, 1907. Ajit was released Nov. 1907 and was later in the revolution in Bengal. Rai was released Nov. 1907 and went to Congress.

*1907* - *1910* AB /Bhagwan S./ p.73-74 apr-- Fled India after Punjab disturbances of 1907-8. Arrived in HK in 1910. Arrested in 1911, 1912 for sedition. Word spread to Shanghai, Amoy and Hangkow. Left in 1913 for Canada.

*1907* LET 2 January /Col. Falk Warren to Under Secretary of State, India House/ jan-1 jan-1 In an extensive letter he tells of 2200, 50-60 are out of work. They work in timber mills, cement works, cutting wood, learing land. Housing difficulties stem from hostility to them, but these are only initially. They have a large house which can hold up to 60 at 15 cents a day or $3.00 per month. Herman S. is in charge. There was a previous letter of Nov. 22, 1906.

*1907* BSD 16 Set up a rooming house near Burrard Inlet sawmills and another near False Creek on Seymour Street. He bought an old restaurant and renovated it into a rooming house.

*1907* VP 29 January /H. fired/ p.1 H. are fired from railway work. 200 of them in the interior either could or would not work likewhites. They returned to Vancouver.

*1907* VP 30 March /Bill to Disenfranchise H./ p.1 Bowser will introduce a bill to disenfranchise H. in Victoria in a few days. Ch. 17 of Statutes of 1903-1904 do it for C. and J. An ammendment will add H. H. are defined as native of India, not of Anglo-Saxon parents. Will include non and naturalized H. in B.C. Penalty is $50.00 Mar. 27, p.1 H. excluded by a unanimous vote of the legislature. A large number of H. are on the voting list. Apr.18, p.1 H. denied Vancouver vote through change in Municipality Incorporation Act.

*1907* VP /Monteagle Arrives/ p.1 Monteagle arrives with 900 H. There are no houses available.

81907* LET 15 September /Laurier to A. Bethune, Mayor of Vancouver/ feb-- S special officer is going west to investigate the H. matters. He is W.D. Scott.

*1907* Memo 23 October /W.D. Scott/ jan-2 Approximately 4000 have come. 1649 applied to the US. 1274 have gone to the US. This is totally unacceptable. 25 died of exposure last year. Some are Asiatics but none are H.

*1907* 2 October /W.E. McInnes Report/ feb-- McInnes went to Vancouver under an assumed name for the Ministry of Interior. CPR HK initiated movement of H. in 1905 to replace diminished C. flow.

*1907* LET 16 September /Laurier to Grey/ Grey Papers, MG27 #B2V21 He sees no way to deal with H. except quietly checking immigration.

*1907* LET 19 February /Scott to Lord Elgin/ jan-1 Re: Bhose Association% 1905-6 fiscal year: 387H. arrived. July to end of 1906: 2042.

*1907* VP 10 October /500 Arrive/ p.1 500 arrive on Tartar. 200 rejected, 100 for lack of $25.00, others for disease. Scott returned tomorrow to the East.

*1907* VP 24 September /Scott arrives/ p.1 Scott arrives to study the Oriental problem.

*1907* 12 September /RG2,1 #2059-60/ mar-- Suggestion made of $500.00 for H. entering country. Referred to Interior. Also,Nov. 2, 1907 #2438-39, Minister of Interior suggests $500.00 2 No *1907* LET 29 October /Oliver to Governor General in Council/ jan-2 Suggests a $500.00 head tax.

*1907* 14 November /RC 1663/ feb-- Sends man to Vancouver to investigate how H. and J. are coming to Canada.

*1907* LET 18 November /Russell and Russell, Solicitors,Hindustani Assoc.,to Scott/ jan-2 Telgram: Request H. held for deportation who are going to be released on bond provided by friends.

*1907* LET 18 November /Munro to Scott/ jan26 Have collected $3800.00 in $100.00 lots as bond against new H. being indigent.

*1907* VP 14 September /H. Appeal to City/ p.1 H. appeal to city for help. A. Mr. Das was speaking for the masses (probably T.N.D.). Last winter 15 died of exposure. Das claims that the Hindustani Aoociation want to erect and run a building to housenew immigrants. Mayor Bethune wired Ottawa.

*1907* VP 14 September /H. Appeal to Governor General/ p.3 H. appeal to Governor General to stop further immigration. $6000 had been collected to provide temporary lodgings by H. This notion of stopping H. immgration is from "educated H.".

*1907* LET 11 November /Grey to Elgin, Secretary of State for Colonies/ feb-- In view of tense situation, H. immigration should be stopped.

*1907* 23 November /King in Vancouver/ King is in Vancouver and Victoria regarding Asian immigration.

*1907* VP 26 December /H. looking for work/ p.1 Scores of H. went to Juneau looking for work. They can't find it. Mine owners prefer whites.

*1907* LET 23 October /Colin Campbell, India Office, Whitehall to Under Secretary of State, Colonial Office/ jan-2 Re: recent anti-Asiatic agitation in B.C. he wants information on Indians in B.C. Reply: with ships and numbers for 1907: Only CPR and Nippon Yusen Kaisha Steamship companies brought them. The rates are : Calcutta to HK: R35 without food and R45 with food. HK to Vancouver $97.35 American or $50.00 in gold. Immigrants claim they first came from HK on representations from CPR.

*1907* - *1908* AB /Gurudatt Kumar/ p.49 apr-- Came in 1907 to Vancouver from India.

*1907* Mu /G.S. Kumar/ p.60 apr-- Arrive in December aboard the Monteagle.

*1907* KDS /First Executives BSD/ President: Teja S. Ma (Jat, A%). Treasurer: Tara S. (Brahmin, B%) Executive: Sindar S. Built near R% Portage and Alberta Lumber Companies and provided lumber at cost.

*1907* - *1910* SS /KDS/ p.14 apr-- Vancouver KDS organised in 1917. Others came later in New Westminster, Abbotsford, Fraser Mills, Duncan Coombs and Ocean Falls. 1909, Gudwara built in Vancouver. 1912, Gudwara built in Victoria.

*1907* LET 28 January /Mackenzie King to W.D. Scott/ jan-1 He wants a statement regarding H. for Labour Gazette. Scott tells him to forget it.

*1907* VP 10 August /Poll Tax/ p.1 Incoming H. and other Asians will have to pay the #3.00 provincial poll tax.

*1907* VP 17 August /Organising Against H./ p.1 Everett mills have organized to kick out H. A union was formed with 450 members. By Labour Day it will have 1500 members.

*1907* 5 September /Ward 1973/ Writes about the Bellingham eviction.

*1907* VP 6 September /H. house burned by Mob/ p.1 H. lodging burned by mob. Many belongings also lost. Many were beaten. Their main problem is in not realizing that so many of them in one place threaten white labour. Over 100 leave Vancouver today.

*1907* MDH /Bellingham Riot/ jan-1 400 H. are in jail following the Bellingham riots. 750 are walking to B.C. along the Great Northern Railway.

*1907* VP 4 October /H. driven out of Washington/ p.1 H. are driven out of Washington. Ten who came across from Canada were driven back. Shots were fired. This was in Danville.

*1907* VP 5 November /H. Leaving Everett/ p.11 H. are leaving Everett due to attacks and threats. They are working in the mills there.

*1907* 4 September /Bellingham Riot/ feb-- 400 are in jail and City Hall. 750 are between Bellingham and the Border. 500 whites attacked the mills. Note: 7 September a big meeting of the Asiatic Exclusion League met. Mayor Browne was in the lead.

*1908* 22 January /Goverment of India/ jan-2 Telegram from India states that any overt discrimination against H. "by whites in the future will be the subject of severe criticism in the present state of public feeling in India".

*1908* OIC 27 8 January /First Century/ First century passes.

*1908* VP 29 January /H. Try Holdup/ p.1 2 H. try to stage a holdup.

*1908* VP 20 January /Sikh Temple Founded/ p.7 8198 The first Sikh Temple founded on 2nd Ave. p000 people attend including many whites. Balwant S. officiated at the event. His English was not sufficient to the task of speaking to the whites so T.N.Das took over. It is valued at $6000.00

*1908* LET 22 January /Government of India to Grey/ RG7 G21 V199 Acknowledged, yes continue. <150>

*1908* LET 25 January /Viceroy Elgin to Lord Grey/ jan-2 Continuous journey limitations have been publicized. Elgin to Grey, Feb. 12, 1908, cautions regarding "avoid express discrimination".

*1908* VP 12 February /Natal Act/ p.1 The Natal Act is now in force against H. and J.

*1908* LET 1 February /Teddy Roosevelt to Laurier/ feb-9 Has seen Mackenzie King and is glad that he is going to England regarding Asian immigration. Japan was his principal concern.

*1908* VP 13 February /Natal Act Disallowed/ p.1 Natal act will be disallowed by Federal government. In first test two J. and 1 H. let in. Das is still working for immigration. H. were here before.

*1908* VP 13 February /Deportation/ p.1 6 from Suva will be deported regarding continuous passage.

*1908* 14 February /Fijians Deported/ R676 769173 jan30 6 Fijians deported.

*1908* LET 2 March /R. Boudveau, Clerk of Privy Council, to Governor General/ jan-2 Dispatches Mackenzie King to England to confer with British and Indian governments, and to thn report to council.

*1908* VP 25 February /H. Arrive on Monteagle/ p.1 160 H. will arive on Monteagle. Will certainly result in the test of continuous passage law.

*1908* LET 2 March /Munro to Oliver/ jan-2 20 arrived on E. of Japan on through tickets issued by Gillander's Arbuthnot and Co., agents for the CPR in Calcutta. Tickets are genuine, what is to be done? Oliver replies: land them, Mar.3.

*1908* 2 March /Mackenzie to Confer/ RG2,1 H45819 mar-- Mackenzie King appointed to conder with British government.

*1908* 20 March /J. McInnes, Vancouver/ feb-- Report of an account by L. Warren of London Times. Sohan had come on Monteagle and with most others is in d% shed. He a% condition. He, MacInnes sees great resentment.

*1908* VP 13 March /Natal Act Ultra Vires/ p.1 Justice Morrison declares Natal Act ultra vires. Releases 15 H. presently in jail.

*1908* VP 3 March /H. Rearrested/ p.1 Ludicrous case of H. being rearrested by provincial authorities regarding Natal Act, after being released by Federal government.

*1908* VP 6 March /H. Escape/ p.1 H. from Suva escape from police. (Cartoon also.)

*1908* LET 16 March /Scott to Munro/ jan-2 Telegram: He cannot accept certificates as equalling continous passage.

*1908* LET 13 March /T.R. McInnes to Scott/ 784334 jan-2 Regarding certificates held by some H., acquired in Calcutta. A copy exists which certifies holder has paid a passage HK to Vancouver in steerage, issued to Dehan Singh. On reverse side: Examined for trachoma in Calcutta.

*1908* LET 28 February /Oliver to L.G. Milne/ jan-2 Telegram: Still trouble regarding tickets issued in Calcutta. A.S. Munro writes to Oliver, Mar.2 1908, 20 H. arrive with Calcutta tickets and will land unless instructed 'no'. Oliver writes to Munro, Mar. 30, 1908, regarding Oliver's concerns. T.R. McInnes writes to Scott Mar.13, 1908, that 186 more have arrived via Monteagle with similar certificates. Scott writes to Munro Mar. 16, 1908, the tickets will not be accepted.

*1908* March /Regarding Behari, Lal/ 13BCR 415 Mid-month.

*1908* VP 25 March /H. Released/ p.1 142 H. released on writ of Habeus Corpus by Justice Clement. Governor General could not delegate powers to any official.

*1908* LET 18 March /Scott to Munro/ jan-2 He heard that Monteagle passengers were released. Also hears that government took legal proceedings against Natal Act. "Have this contradicted".

*1908* LET 18 March /McInnes to Oliver/ jan-2 CPR refuses to order deportation of 142. Takes Munro to court regarding the Monteagle. E. of Japan left port without authority leaving H. in Vancouver. Munro writes to Oliver, same date, with similar message.

*1908* LET 18 March /Oliver to Milne, Victoria/ jan-2 Detain E. of Japan.

*1908*VP 17 March /Deportation of 200/ p.1 Over 200 who came on the Monteagle will be deported regarding continuous passage on the next ship. Actually about 140. Mar.19, 1908, p.1, the E. of Japan sailed without them and the government is angry. CPR may be fined.

*1908* LET 16 March /Munro to Scott, The Line Hardens/ jan-2 On the Monteagle, 12 rejected for disease; 23 had less than $25.00, though they left before that regulation of Jan. 8, 78; 78 missed the steamer at HK due to CPR fault; 70 made a continuous journey and had sworn CPR statements. Scott writes to Munro Mar.16, 1908, to reject: diseased, those with less than $25.00, those delayed in transit, and the remaining 70 as not having come on through tickets, if CPR consents. If CPR does not, bring certificates issued to court.

*1908* VP 17 March /Fijians Coming/ p.1 5000 Fijian H. are coming. They fear that the few who came earlier will encourage others to come.

*1908* VP March /H. in Jail/ A number of H. involved in legal action regarding continous journey legislations and Natal Act are in jail.

*1908* 2 March 662 Second continuous passage.

*1908* Between March and May 27 717 Third continous passage.

*1908* 919 Fourth continous passage.

*1908* 6-23 March, submitted 2 May /Report by Mackenzie King, C.G.M. Deputy Minister of Labour, on his mission to confer with the British authorities on the subject of immigration to Canada from the Orient and immigration from India in particular/ jan-2 Saw Elgin (Secretary of State for Colonies), John Morley (Secretary of State for India), Sir Edward Grey (Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs). Because a minimum of publicity is desired a confidential memo accompanies the report.(p.4) Natives of India are not suited to Canada because of climate, different "manners and cultures", inability to adapt and therefore suffer privation. labour unrest. (p.8) Regarding the Royal Commission on Oriental labour (Nov.-Dec.1907), the causes of problems are: the distribution of circulars in India, steamship agents, exploitation of H. working here (p.9) Continuous passage requirement and strict interpretation of Indian Emigration Act XXL of1893 will stop it. (p.10-11) Present requirement of $25.00 per immigrant is also a bar to entry. (p.12) End of reel 279.

*1908* VP 25 March /138 Detained/ p.1 138 detained H. bring suit to recover funds from Dominion government regarding their room and while board while prisoners. $800.00 was collected.

*1908* LET 25 March /Secretary of State ? to Viceroy / feb-0 Explains Mackenzie King's mission.

*1908* VP 26 March /H. Prevented from departing HK/ p.1 Hundreds of H. are being prevented from coming forward from HK. There are none on recent steamers. This is regarding need to decide on their status in Canada. It seems that the CPR does not want to risk the costs of deportations.

*1908* OC 24 March /H. Protest/ jan-2 500 in Sikh Temple protest the exclusions. They cabled John Morley Secretary of State for India, signed by Uday Ram, nephew of Davis Chado.

*1908* VP 25 March /Morley speaks on H./ p.1 John Morley, Secretary of State for India speaks in House of Commons on H. question. He is in conference with King on the matter..

*1908* LET 31 March /Viceroy to Government of Britain/ feb-0 Don't want to have an Indian permit supplied. No CPR through tickets have been issued since December. Mar. 26, CPR central issued warning to agents not to issue tickets.

*1908* VP 13 April /CPR Stopped H./ p.1 CPR has stopped carrying H. It is not profitable given current problems.

*1907* - *1913* /Prairie Lumber Boom Develops/ The Lower Fraser Valley mills expanding and East Indians leave Burrard Inlet, False Creek and Michel Island sites.

*1908* LET 25 April /F.E. Mody to Mayor Bethune, Vancouver/ 820380 copy jan-2 From room 15, Court House Block. Please secure work for H.

*1908* VP 29 April /70 Sue/ p.1 70 sue government for wrongful imprisonment. Behari Lal and Jewalla S. are the principals.

*1908* LET 13 May /L . Crew to Lord Grey/ RG7 G3 feb13 Includes government of India's objections to having legislation against Indians.

*1908* 21 July /Mackenzie King Confidential Memo/ RG2,1 1612 mar-- Confidential memorandum accomapnying report on mission to confer with British. May 2, 1908. See notes.

*1908* Vol.1 No.1 April /Free Hindustan/ feb-- Attacks Canadian response.

*1908* LET 23 March /McInnes to Oliver/ jan-2 Claims that this is all a sessesionist bluff. Another, same date, regarding a mass meeting in Temple instigated by "Tarak Nath Das", of "American Immigration Office", an agitator.

*1908* AB /Taraknath Das, Hop Surendramohan Bose/ apr-- Das begins school in New Westminster. Hop has it closed down. (p.50) In March the Indian Government wants the "Free Hindustan" stopped, by Americans. (p.50, 1908) In 1900 Das goes to New York. In 1908, Das and Sikhs organise Committee of the Management of Sikh Gudwara and temples. (p.51)

*1908* LET 3 April /McInnes to Oliver/ feb-- Taraknath Das of US immigration office, is instigating protests. Davidchand, uncle of Uday Ram has grafted a small fortune from immigrants.

*1908* LET 21 May /W.E. Blythe, a Fiji Planter, Liverpool, to Lord Strathcona/ jan-2 Describes a violent run-in with H. on Vancouver Island. Strathcona sends it to Minister of Labour, Lemieux, who sends it to Oliver.

*1908* LET 6 September /Hop to Oliver/ have Laurier papers MG26, G, V532, has been providing information since April 1908. Some have already bought land. Average wage is .50-$1.00 per day.

*1908* 21 July PC 1619 /Copy of Mackenzie King's Report/ feb-0 Send a copy of the "Confidential Memorandum" to Commissioner of Dominion Police, Secretary of State for the Colonies, and Secretary of State for India. Regarding Vancouver situation.

*1908* Liverpool Courier 21 May /Indian Seditious Movement/ jan-2 Extract: Indian Seditious Movement is directed from the Pacific Coast, Vancouver. Millside, near New Westminster is the cnetre. A "school" for English instruction is a Sikh sedition cnetre, run by 2 Punjabis and 1 Bengali. The Bengali started the "Free Hindustan" in Seattle. A Granville street grocery is used to exchange letters from Vancouver to India regarding bombs etc. <200>

*1908* /COPIES of FREE HINDUSTAN/ feb-1 Published in Vancouver, 4 pages, very radical. Vol.1, No.4, July 1908, has larger format 4 pages. Vol. 1, No.8, Nov.-Dec. 1908, from New York City shows pictures of starving children. Vol.2, No. 5-6, July-Aug. 1909, has big article mocking the Famine Relief Fund. Vol.3, No.1-2, Mar.-Apr. 1910 is explicitly revolutionary. No real philosophy, not anti-class. Also have typed copy of April Vol.1, No.1.

*1908* MAJ /Das Etc./ Lala Pindi Das of Rawalpindi was jailed for 7 years for receiving material from Das.

*1908* /Articles on Sedition/ By mid-1908 there were may articles in the Province on sedition in India.

*1908* LET 10 September /W. McLeod, Lieutenant, SDIO to DIO, MD North Vancouver/ feb-0 Subject: Seditious Publications of Hindus. Vol.1, #3 of Free Hindustani of June 1908 was seized by Postal authorities. In August the paper moved to Seattle. Mailing list was mostly South African Indians, except Shyamaji Krishnavarma. Letter forwarded by Major Brittain, Corps. of Guides, District Intelligence Officer, MD #1. This was forwarded to Dept. of Military Defense, and Governor General to Crewe to Secretary of State.

*1908* May June /Confidential Memo of Mackenzie King/ feb-9 Memo to the effect that certain H. are using Vancouver as centre for sedition. He was in Vancouver in May and June of 1908. Hop told him of sedition, especially Tarak Nath Das, Uday Ram and his uncle Davidchand. A note of Das, quoted, says that Hop is an Anglo-Indian.

*1908* VP 21 May /H. Help Insurrection/ p.1 H. are helping insurrection in India. Bomb recipes are being sent from Pacific Coast to India. Thousands of dollars are sent to India.

*1908* VP 5 June /Farms Proposed/ p.1 T.N. Das suggests farms be set up in Chilliwack for indigent H. Spoke on this at the temple.

*1908* 9 May /Canada Gazette/ feb-0 7-8 Edward VII. Bill #135 to ammend Immigration Act assented to April 10, 1908. Subsection 1 of Section 30, is hereby changed to Governor in Council by an order prohibiting those who have not come via "continuous journey from country of which they are natives, or citizens, and upon through tickets purchased in that country". Memo: on J. and Continuous Passage. Lemieux Agreement did not affect Hawaiian J. from coming. This was done under sec.10 of the Immigration Act, under general clause allowing Governor General to do what is expedient. Thus, an Order in Council, was passed regarding continuous journey. H. on CPR Monteagle disallowed on the grounds that the Act did not delegate that the Governor General could delgate the power to exclude to the Minister of the Interior. A new Order was passed, then the Act was amended, then a new order which reflected the Act. P.C. 932 of May 27, 1908, the exclusion order, reframed regarding changes in the law it says that it is now in effect. But, then why does it not exclude others? It has no "pacific" clause or whatever.

*1908* 3 June /$200.00 requirement/ RG2,1 1255 mar-- Require $200.00 of those from countries without "special" arrangements.

*1908* 3 June /$200.00 requirement/ P.C. 1255 feb-0 Previously, by Order in Council of Jan.18, 1908, people must have $25.00 unless support of relations is shown. Order in Council of Mar.27 continued this. Now it is increased to $200.00 for "All Asiatic immigrants other than those with whose countries the Governor in Council has made arrangements. whith ies *1908* LET 29 June /J.O. Smith, Immigration Branch Office, London to Scott/ jan-2 Claims the $200.00 possession of each Asian immigrant is getting liberal sentiments mad. May affect British money market.

*1908* VP 2 August /H. Marries White/ p.1 H. marries a white woman.

*1908* VP 22 August /H. Contracting TB/ p.1 May H. are contracting TB. 50 have been deported in expectation of the onset of winter.

*1908* VP 24 August /H. Strikebreakers/ p.1 H. strikebreakers attacked by Italians in Tacoma. Several wounded.

*1908* Copy of the Indian Emigration Act, Modified up to 1902. 823821 jan-2

*1908* LET 19 September /Lord Crew to Lord Grey/ feb-0 Regarding British Honduras: High Commission told him. Came from Canadian (?) Department of Interior. Could Canada send 3-4 H. to British Honduras?

*1908* 9 October /H. to Honduras/ P.C. 2389m Visas approved for H. to go to British Honduras.

*1908* 9 October /Visit by H. to Honduras/ P.C. 2389m feb-0 Visit by H. to Honduras approved.

*1908* LET 14 December /Gov. Swayne to Governor General/ feb-0 Telegram: All indigent H. in Vancouver provided for by H. community.

*1908* LET 27 October /Crew to Grey/ feb-0 Governor of British Honduras is now in London. Could he visit Canada regarding H. matters?

*1908* October /H. leave for Honduras/ feb-0 J.B. Harker and 3 H. leave for British Honduras. Hopkinson is one of the H. and is the interpreter.

*1908* AB /Teja S., alias for Niranjan S./ apr-- Came to Vancouver from New York to help. Nov.23 began Guru Nanak Mining and Trust. Soon had members across the Pacific States. p.52

*1908* VP 23 November /H. to Honduras/ p.1 Teja S. claim that the delegation to Honduras was offered $3000 to speak favorably about the conditions there. Hopkinson made the offer. Nagar S. and Sham S. were the delegation. The community is against the move. Teja and the Sind-Punjabi community are starting a land company. Most H. are now employed. Another article, same page, Teja S. lectures about Indian independence. One H. has a white wife and a child by her.

*1908* LET 24 November /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Teja S. came to agitate from New York. He graduated from a university in the Punjab. He convinced locals not to go to British Honduras. Revolutionary activity is beginning.

*1908* MV /Hopkinson, Teja S./ apr-- Teja S. claimed Hopkinson offered a $3000 bribe to report favorably on British Honduras, to Nagar S. and Sham S.

*1908* VP 8 December /cartoon/ p.1 Unspecified.

*1908* VP 21 December /Teja Schemes/ p.3 Teja plans a scheme to send thousands of H. from India to the Southern US. Dec.22, p.6, Editorial, Thinks this is a fine idea.

*1908* LET 7 December /Grey to Crew/ feb-0 Teja S. wanted regarding 1907 Indian sedition.

*1908* 24 November /Restrictions on H./ RG2,1 2650 mar-- Complaint regarding restrictions on H. in B.C. from H. Robin.

*1908* 24 November /Ordinance No.20, 1908/ jan-2 To authorize advances to pay the passage of certain East Indian laborers, by the Government of Honduras. To pay, in concert with Government of Canada, to be repaid by the workers.

*1908* LET 12 December /R. Brittain, to Assistant Dir. of Intelligence, Militia Headquarters/ feb-0 Concerning Taraknath Das, who applied to teach at Norwich University, Vermont. *1908* LET 24 December /Crew to Grey/ feb-0 Teja S. has independent means, and is not dangerous.

*1908* VP 7 December /Temple Incident/ p.2 J.B. Harkin refused entrance to Temple with shoes on. Teja, MA Cambridge, was brought to Vancouver 5 weeks previously. After an hour's stand-off (Teja wanted the reporter present in the Temple) the officials left.

*1908* LET 18 November /R. Brittain to Assistant Dir. of Intelligence, Militia Headquarters/ feb-0 The H. conspiracy is real. He knows this from a H. working for Provincial Police. This news got into papers as H. making bombs at Millside.

*1908* VP 6 November /Bomb Factory at Millside/ p.1 Bomb factory at Millside. Das, now in Seattle, was the head of the conspiracy. A Millside room is fitted out as factory-- only a half dozen can enter it. Collections are being made across B.C. Nov. 7, p.1 Dominion Secret Service is investigating the charge. The centre of sedition is New York and Chicago.

*1908* LET 9 December /Grey to Crew/ Suggested to Prime Minister that King should go to opium conference via London and India to Shanghai, then he could communicate sedition situation in B.C. Canadians will pay expenses. Dec.11 Grey to Crew, Will send. Teja S. is the real focus. Also, Grey to Laurier, Dec.3, Watch H. more closely, and keep sending information.

*1908* VP 12 December /Teja Singh/ p.1, Sec.2 Full page article "Mystery and Power of Teja Singh" with large sketch. Province is very impressed with the man's learning and claim that he has total respect among H. He has taught at Columbia.

*1908* VP 7 December /Company Formed/ p.1 Guru Nanak Mining and Trust Company is formed. The locale of the business is the temple on 2nd.

*1909* Joy and Husenbury, 1980 /First Sikhs in Rutland (Kelowna)/ p.9 Active in Sikh affairs.

*1909* Mittal 1977 /Bhai Parmanand Arrested/ p.61 Bhai Parmanand arrested in 1909, room contained seditious letters and a bomb manual. He was in England in 1907.

*1909* LET 25 May /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Teja S. is not going to London.

*1909* LET 18 January /W.W. Cory to Sir John Hanbury-Williams, Secretary and Military Secretary to Governor General/ feb-0 Hop to be offered up to 2 years employment at $100 per month. Could you see that his leave is extended? is *1909* LET 11 February /Lord Crew to Lord Grey, Secret/ jan-3 Acknowledges ;confidential dispatch of jan.13 and 19, 1909, regarding information on H. in B.C. Lord Morley sent it to Government of India. Also, sent to India, information about Emma Goldman, (regarding dispatch of Dec.29).

*1909* 27 February /MacGill to Scott/ jan-3 Teja S. claims he could support many immigrants.

*1909* VP 9 February /Editorial/ p.6 The Loyalty of the Sikhs--in India.

*1909* /A.B. Barnard/ RG76 812274 jan30 Deputy Director of Intelligence, Simla. Regarding prints and photos of deportees, July 10, 1909. Murder of Jagirs, 1913. Not much.

*1909* VP 16 November /Editorial/ p.6 Regarding attempted murder of Lord Minto.

*1909* LET 17 November /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Regarding 2 H. Mehkil and Duloo being shotgunned on a boat going to Arrowhead.

*1909* 4 October /Jogesh Misra/ jan28 Arrived Sept. 26, 1909. 23 student H., 2 Bengalis.%

*1909* LET 6 October /J. Harkin to Grey/ feb-0 Indian government has requested fingerprints of possible seditionists. <250>

*1909* LET 12 February /MacGill to Cory/ jan-3 They will not go to British Honduras to live scattered through the city in different areas, 6-8 in a house. Costs about $2 per week. "Whole community is found to be taking care of its weak numbers in a way which has never before been noticed..." Many beg, but for money not food. 5963 arrived in B.C. 2582 in the last 2 years.

*1909* Vancouver World 30 October /Sikhs Bring Women to City/ jan-3 Wives of Rajas, heads of Sikh society. Balwant S. has gone to get 5 women (wives). 4-500 Sikhs living in Vancouver.

*1909* LET 22 September /Harkin to Cory/ feb-0 26 H. leaving to get Wives and Children.%Some are allied with Teja S.

*1909* LET 19 January /J.H. MacGill, New Immigration Agent, Vancouver, to W.W. Cory, Ottawa/ jan-3 400 H. are unemployed. Most have money but some are begging. W.W. Cory soon to become Head of Immigration.

*1909* LET 20 December /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 About 1000 out of work in Vancouver, but well provided for.

*1909* VP 12 May /H. Employed/ p.2 Northern Carraries% to employ H.

*1908* LET 2 September /W. Hop to Oliver/ Laurier Papers MG26,G, V.532 About 15 per cent are in farming already.

*1909* 26 November to 3 December /Hop's Diary/ feb-0 15 H. in Mission on farms. $1 per day. 15 H. in Abbotsford construction. $1.50 per day. 70 at A. Lumber Co. $1.40-1.75 per day. 20 on farms in Matsqui, 40 at Clayburn at brick co. and 60 at Harrison Mills. Most would be unemployed during winter but would go to Vancouver if they had funds.

*1909* No exact date /Governor of Punjab: Memo/ feb-0 Teja Singh alias, Naranjani S.'s father was a hospital assistant in Gujranwala. Took an MA at Punjab U. taught school at Khalia College and was temporary principal. Undue tough with Cleuf% KDS.

*1909* LET 21 January /MacGill to Cory/ jan-3 Teja S. collects much money for revolution in India. Guru Nanak Mining and Trust is a front. Teja and "Balmokund" recently preached sedition at Sikh temple. Immigration is watching Sikhs.

*1909* MAJ /B. Parmanand, Hardayal/ p.306 Bhai Parmanand cought in Punjab with bomb manual. Ajit S. flees to Persia. Hardayal is active. Hardayal had recruited Bal Mukund who spread sedition in Bengal.

*1909* LET 30 October /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Balwant S., priest, left on Oct. 28 for HK. Indian government should watch him.

*1909* LET 9 January /R. Brittain to ADI, Militia Headquarters/ feb-0 Luchman S. is going to India with $500 for sedition.

*1909* 22 February /B. Khein Singh/ p.1 B. Khein singh was recently in Vancouver regarding possible manufacture of bombs. He worked for Indian government then went to Seattle and San Francisco.

*1909* LET 25 September /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Teja had his wife and 2 children in Vancouver.

*1909* LET 16 November /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Teja S.to England with $20,000 for political purposes.

*1909* LET 18 May /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Teja S. left for California then to England. He claims indigent H. are not helped by others.

*1900* - *1920* AB /English Revolutionaries, Teja S., Sundar S./ apr-- July 1 1909 Sir Curzon shot in London. Revolution turned more violent. Savakar was sent back to India for trial. p.25 Teja S. and Sundar were trained in India House. p.36

*1909* Hu /Assasination of Wm. Curzon, Curzon-Wyllie/ p.113 By Madan Lal Dhingra.

*1909* Hu /Das and Tolstoy/ p.153-154 T.N.Das (1884-1958) wrote to Tolstoy, who wrote back. Gandhi received a typed copy of the reply. (CWMG IX, 449) Could Crew get to Garidi via Paris. Das had asked Tolstoy for help regarding Indian freedom. Tolstoy rejects, and says religion is the key to free Das' H. Did not reflect this, see copy.

*1909* VP 5 August /Whites Replace H./ p.1 Whites replace H. at Fraser River sawmills, by French Canadians. All Asians will be replaced. The night shift has been discontinued.

*1909* LET 18 March /Hop to J. MacGill, Vancouver/ feb-0 H. work at Anglo American Lumber Mills under Chanda S.

*1909* 4 December -16 December /Hop's Diary/ feb-0 Revelstoke, about 50 H. 15 for CPR, 23 in mills. In Arrowhead, 30 in mills. 200 H. between Grand Forks, Eholt, Fisheman, 10 in Nelson, 10 at Golden.

*1909* LET 12 August /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 GD Kemar was 3 times in Victoria courts for defrauding countrymen. Had a store. Has connections with seditionists in Paris. Uday Ram has a store in Millside.

*1909* LET /Correspondence between MacGill and Teja S., to Mgr. G. Nanak Mining and Trust Co., 1866 2nd Ave./ jan-3 It seems Teja is revolutionary. See next.

*1909* /Copy of Advertisement/ feb-0 Canada Indian Trust Co. Ltd.

*1909* VP 19 January /H. in Victoria Start Temple/ p.2 Suggested the new temple in abandoned Victoria Creamery building.

*1909* LET 17 August /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Trouble for Teja S. from questions regarding funds and Guru Nanak Mining and Trust Co.

*1909* LET 15 April /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 About 5 per cent are H. No Sikhs out of work. 229 working clearing land in Shaughnessy for CPR subdivision. Guru Nanak Mining and Trust has bought 172 acres in North Vancouver.

*1909* LET 3 February /Cory to J. MacGill/ jan27 Hop appointed under both J. MacGill (agent) and Dr. Munro (medical examiner). Have him send weekly reports. H. are to be his specialty.

*1909* Bwg /Sundar Singh/ feb-1 Born Lahore. Doctor's degree from Punjab U. MD Glasgow U. Came to Canada in 1909. Has American wife.

*1909* /S.N. Singh/ p.45 Pictures. One woman only is wife of a Doctor of Vedic medicine in Vancouver. He has married an American woman.

*1909* Hu /Gandhi and Das and Teja S./ p.133 Gandhi was in communication with friends of Das. Also, at Cambridge he met Teja Singh. See CWMG X, 75.

*1909* /Tolstoy, Leo, Recollections and Essays, London, 1937/ p.426 footnote: Letter to Das. <285 END BOX 1>

*1910* LET 3 September /London Office to Scott/ jan-3 Re.: Difficulty stemming from Indian %.

*1910* LET 15 September /Clara Walkers, Friends of Hindustan, , San Francisco, to Customs, Van./ feb-1

*1910* MI /Sea Customs Act (VIII of 1870)/ p.67 apr-- Used to prohibit importation of books into India.

*1910* LET 11 January /Hopkinson to W.W.Cory, Dep. Minister of Interior/ jan-3 Commission police make many references to files 808722, 820722, 821722. Kernan V. sick, gambling extensive, H. sneaking in across border. (copied)

*1911* LET 4 February /Scott to Oliver/ jan-3 Cliams CPR still scheming to get H. trade.

*1910* LET 7 March /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Teja seems bent on amalgamating leadership. Cause: In England he met Gandhi via prominant man in South Africa. Also, should not invest in white enterprises.

*1910* LET 2 March /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Teaj S. has returned Apr. 27 from trip to N.Y. and England.

*1910* VP 29 April / H. seek Vote/ feb-0 H. are now out for the right to vote.

*1910* PC 713 /Reply to Sec. of State for Colonies/ feb-0 Reply to Sec. of State for Colonies who was conerned about provisions of Subsection C of Sec. 38 of recent Immigration Act, which gave authority to prohibit British Indian immigration. Claims will not except in emergency.

*1910* VP 1 June /Van. H. Aid Plotters in India/ p.1 Thousands of dollars sent to India. As much as $2000 at a single meeting on Sunday. Money sent to London. As much as $20,000 in a single draft.

*1910* VP 1 July /H. Aid Plotters in India/ feb-1 Funds are sent to India from Van. H. Federal Secret Service investigators in Vancouver at the request of London. As much as $2000 collected at one meeting. As much as $20,000 sent to London in one draft. July 3, Hop doesn't know about it.

*1910* 3 August /Note from Gov. Gen.'s Secretary to Dept. of Ministry of Interior, (Cory)/ feb-1 Asks to introduce Hop to two Indian officials, Mr. Clogston and Mr. Lombard.

*1910* LET 6 September /Scott to G.D. Kemar, Hindustani Assoc./ jan-3 In response to charge that Hopkinson was mentioned% lately at court cases. Arrival in 808722.

*1910* LET 1 November /Swami Bhahmanadu to Swami Belur, Math, Howran India/ feb-1 Re: Trigunatita. Glad Trig has stipped associating with student politics.

*1910* /H. Rahim Protest/ feb-1 H. Rahim's Protest went to India Office, to Colonial Office, to Cdn. Dept. of Interior. It was then acceeded to.

*1910* Mu /Bela S./ p.346 apr-- Came to Canada in 1910. Was in 20th Punjab Regiment until 1906. Gone home in 1912, returned in 1913. Suspicions arose re: deportation of Bhagwan.

*1910* 1 June /Picture: "The Indian Martyrs of the War of Independence in 1857"/ feb-1 Shows Sikhs strapped to cannon. Picture sent by Grey to Laurier. He notes that the Picture,(by a Russian) has modern British Army uniforms. He (Grey) is upset.

*1910* LET 17 January /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 G.D. Kemar has moved to Van. Opened a night English school at 2324 2nd Ave. West.

*1910* February /Hop: Report Re: H./ feb-0 First landed in 1903. Nearly every H. now owns at least one city lot.

*1910* /Prospectus of Canada-India Supply and Trust Co. Ltd./ feb-0 Capital: $50,000 in 2000 shares. President: Uday Ram Joshi, Rai Kot, Ludhiana; Vice-President: Vice President, Rahda Kishan and Bahiro Wal Hishrapin; Secretary, Balmo Kand Shidar; Director, Taraknath Das.

*1910* /In Formation As To H. Agitators in Van./ 10pp. feb-0 Probable author: Gov. Swayne. Taraknath Das, Bhawanipur, Calcutta. Operated school at Millside re: sedition. Sent information to India. H. store at Millside was implicated. Hop is "on leave" from Calcutta police. His unofficial publicity got the school closed. Uday Ram, Bengali, and Radhi Krishan, N.W. Province from Fiji, keep a $2000 store at Millside. Tarak has relations in the Sham bazaar at Calcutta. He knows A.C. Bannerji, barrister, arrested in 1907 for sedition, now Surendernath Bannerji. Teja S. of Amritsar. MA Lahore, LLB Cambridge. Has done much to get indegents supported. Formed Guru Nanck Mining and trust Co.. Previously not Anti-British. He argues that all community decisions should be public. No strong white antipathy to H. No intent re: families at this point. Emma Goldman's visit provided interesting ideas to local H. Suggests a small quota, 100 per year, and dropping of the $200 tax.

*1909* LET 13 January /Gov. Gen. to Cory/ feb-0 How about hiring Hop? If not done soon, he will probably return to India. *1910* LET 21 December /William Charles Hop to Scott/ jan27 Hop as of Dec.18 is a Police Constable for Canada.

*1910* January /Desh Sevak No.1/ feb-0 H. need education. H. need to invest with their own, but must be careful of exploiters. H. made much by buying and selling lots. (He gives advice on how to do so.) I suspect this 7pp is a newsletter out of an original by G.D. Kemar.

*1910* /Swadesh Sevak/ feb-0 Home industry.

*1910* April /Swadesh Sevak No.4/ feb-0 Original copy of No.4 in gurmuckli%.

*1910* /Swadesh Sevak No.2/ feb-0 History of colonization of India. We can't get it together here, even with a large number. Be honest. Bhargat S. has collected $250 to start a school in his village. Attacks restrictions on Indian newspapers. Address: 6632, 2nd Ave. West Van. Poem on local use of local goods, (re: India's). English school hours 7-9 pm.

*1910* March /Swadesh Sevak No.3/ feb-0 Civilization of India. Conquest by British. Modern facilities, telegraph, schools, etc. in India are for the rich, especially British capitalists.

*1910* April May /Swadesh Sevak No. 4 and 5/ feb-1

*1910* May /Swadesh Sevak No.5/ feb-1 In Gurmuckli%.

*1910* June /Swadesh Sevak No.6/ feb-1

*1910* January, February, July /Swadesh Sevak No.7/ feb-1

*1910* September /Swadesh Sevak No.9/ feb-1

*1910* October, November /Swadesh Sevak No. 10 and 11/ feb-1

*1910* AB /G.D. Kemar/ apr-- Started Swadesh Sevak in Gurmukli. In 1911 went to Seattle.

*1910* August /New Monthly: Pardeshi Khalsa/ feb-1 Editor: Itira Singh. Purports to be specifically Sikh, not in opposition to G.D. Kemar. First edition August, nice cover.

*1910* /America-India Samachar/ feb-0 Published in Van. Reference to Hop.

*1910* ? /Copy of Bonde Mataram/ feb-1 More restrained than Free Hindustan. More non-Indian revolutionary material.

*1910* LET 19 February /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Mrs. Uday Ram arrives and is admitted having fulfilled the requirements. Nathu Ram, same boat, tried to book in Calcutta, and is being held. Post Office in India censoring Cdn. and US mail.

*1910* LET 23 February /Oliver to Scott/ jan-3 Warnings that any wives arriving in B.C. must be detained until interviewed by Inspector Hopkinson. Says: Hopkinson's File 808722.

*1910* 17 August /J.P. Lavoie Memo/ jan-3 Crawford Kershen, born in India of East Indian race, a contractor, wants entry to go to B.C. Via SS Lake Erie, Quebec City. Age 34, allowed to land.

*19108 LET 4 May /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 On April 18, Bhag S. and Soonder S. left for India as a delegation to KDS at Amritsar. Saw revolutionary painting in Uday Ram's house of Indian Mutiny of 1857. Photo gotten by Tarak Nath Das. It was widely circulated.

*1910* LET 26 April /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Sharp conflict between Teja S. and Uday ram, in part religous, bu some cooperation. Moved to send Teja S. to England with $1000. H.A. Falcherkar of Indian Workman's Assoc. was there.

*1910* LET 10 May /Hop to Cory/ feb-0 Teja, Kemar and T.N.Das working together. Das not yet back in town.

*1910* VP 20 June /Maharajah in Van./ p.2 Maharajah of Mourbhang in Van. T.N.Das and Rahim see him. He refuses to talk politics.

*1909* OC 21 June /H. Seeks support/ jan-3 Local Victoria H. will ask visiting Sir Sayaji Rao III, Gaekwan of Baroda for support.

*1910* 22 June /Visit of Gaekwan of Baroda/ feb-1 All the big leaders came together to make a representation.

*1910* LET 29 July /G.D. Kemar to Hindustani Association/ jan27 Hop is not Punjabi, and at Court he has endured bad service with about 100 signatures, including Sundar, Ram Chand, Raja, Hanem.

*1910* LET 18 August /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Hari (or Hiri) S. and Raja S. petitioned the premiere in Van. Hari, MA is the new Teja. Teja has returned to India.

*1910* VP 29 April /Hindus ar now out for Right to Vote/ p.3 They have sent a delegation to London. Niranjan S. a Real Estate owner, cannot land in Van. due to Continuous journey relgulation. They plan a court case. The Geakwan of Baroda will be coming, but inasmuch as he is not in political office, they will greet him but not ask his support.

*1910* 24 April /Petition of Local H. to Government/ jan-3 They are Protesting in the immigration section. Examples of barred returnees, such as Bhai Hari S., Nathu Ram, Jogesh Chander Misra. Teja S., H.A. Talchekar (Sec. of Bombay Workingman's Assoc.) go to England. Copies has other names. Frowarded to Lord Crew, then to Lord Grey, then to Oliver. Oliver lies, claims that a combination passage is possible.

*1910* 1 August /Immigration of British Indians, Report/ RG2,1 No.1489 mar-- Includes petition from H.R., G.D. Kemar, Bhai Bhag Singh from Swadesh Sevak house, 1632 2nd Ave. West. Response of Privy Council to Sec. State for Colonies lies, says that if they get tickets from India (which they can) then no problem.

*1910* LET 13 September /J.P. DeGesen to Swami Trigunitita (Banden Ore)/ feb-1 Swami"excommunicated T.N.Das. Das is "almost as dangerous as Vivekenanda".(?) DeGesen attacks Swami's position.

*1910* LET 26 September /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 8119 His spy, Khier S., has been in San Francisco. There, Dewa accused T.N.Das of graft in not forwarding money to India. Dewa was later beaten. Student sedition in Berkeley is brewing. Hindustani Assoc. formed a time of Rabin's possible deportation. Kemar was Sec/Treasurer.

*1910* 22 September /Petition from California/ jan-3 H. petition Laurier. Extensive monies, 380 names. Reply by Oliver. Copied.

*1910* 26 April /Reply to Sec. Ste for Colonies/ P.C. 713 Reply to secretary who was concerned about provisions of sub-section C of Sec.38 of recent immigration Act re: authority to ban British Indians. Claims will not use except in emergency.

*1910* 9 May /Continuous Journey/ RG2,1 920 mar--

*1910* 9 May /Asiatic Immigrants/ RG2,1 926 mar-- Immigrants must be in possession of $200.

*1910* 9 May /Asiatic/ P.C.926 mar-- Note it specifies "Asiatic origin" P.C. 920 continuous journey: no such specification.

*1910* LET 29 June /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 H. rahim arrived Jan. 1, calims to be in transit to Boston etc. and to India. He stayed in Van. Became manager of Canada-India Supply and Trust Co. Ottawa wants him deported. Has become a great public issue. *1911* LET 17 February /Wm. Hopkinson to Cory/ jan-3 rahim let out on Habeas Corpus. Dr. Soonder S. under deportation order. Notebook of rahim was sent to Cory with agitators' names.

*1910* VP 3 November /H. Rahim/ H. Rahim, manager of C-I Supply and Trust Co. will not be deported until case heard by judge. Out on $1000 bail.

*1910* LET 8 September /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Hira S., Raja S., H. Rahim, G.D.Kemar, and Dr. Soonder S. are present leaders.

*1910* 27 October /Extract of book in pocket of H. Rahim/ feb-1 Information on %

*1910* October /Individual cases Re: East Indians Immigrating to Canada/ jan-4 About 1000 page document. Petition from Sikhs at revelstoke, B.C. to get passports. Lists all file numbers.

*1910* 1 November /Sander S./ jan30 Landed at Halifax Mar.12 1809. "Worked out a scheme with the CPR and others to bring H. by having a man in Calcutta buy their tickets..."

*1910* LET 19 November /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Uday ram and others are attempting to get a India to Van. scheme goin. On local H. initiation CPR hired contacting agent at HK and Mrs. Gillanders Arbuthnot and Jardine Skinner at Co. in Calcutta. Former to recognize passport issued by latter.

*1910* LET 28 November /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Probably they have dropped the thing. Local agent fears Anti-Asiatic League. *1911* Vol.1 /Census of Canada/ pp.372-374 Origins of H. in major cities. Montreal, 9; Toronto, 6; Winnipeg, 11; Van. 490; Calgary, 3; St.John, 1; Victoria, 85; Kingston, 4. 1901: 1076 India born. 1911: 4491 India born. 2342 H. in 1911. None in 1901. (p.367)

*1911* LET n.d. /Scott to Robert Rogers/ jan-4 300+ returned to India in 1910. About 300 returned in 1911.

*1911* Ma /G.D. Kumar, H. Rahim, Sundar S./ p.20 apr-- Established secret political organisation in Van. Rahim arrested for having bonb manual. (see RG76) Rahim and Atma Ram organized United India League. Seth Hussain Rahim.

*1911* LET 27 July /Janet Kemp to Mackenzie King, Minister of "Immigration", (he is Minister of Labour)/ jan-4 Re: mission work among Sikhs with letter from Sundar S.

*1911* December /Bande Mataram III, No.4/ fev-2

*1911* /Note/ feb-1 Hop had a wife and son.

*1911* 31 August /British Council Gen. Kobe/ feb-1 Person who may be H. Rahim was Chugon Kheraj.

*1911* LET 11 July /Hop to Scott/ feb-1 Baboo S. claims H. Rahim is actually Shagun Lall. Latter absconded with money from company in Kobe, Japan about 1908.

*1911* LET 16 July /Sanangadhur Das to Swami Trigunatita, Hindu Temple, San Francisco/ feb-1 Sent from general delivery Oxnow. He is an associate of T.N. Das. Trigunatita is hostile to both. "I belong to a slave nation; a slave nation has no politics." T.N. Das was alienating some of Trigunatita's vedanta students to the nationalist cause.

*1911* LET 17 February /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Has received commission in Dominion Police.

*1911* 15 February /Hop's Police Oath of Allegiance/ jan27 Born June 16, 1880, Hull Yorkshire, England.

*1911* LET 9 October /Scott to Cory/ jan-4 Re: confidential information from Sec. of State for Colonies to Gov. Gen. H. Rahim is mentioned. In Gov. Gen. file?

*1911* LET 14 September /Gov. of India, Dept. of Commerce and Industry, to Lord Crew, Sec. of State for India/ jan-4 Protests exclusion of H. visitors, students, merchants.

*1911* LET 5 October /Hop to Cory from Seattle/ feb-1 T.N. Das is back at Berkeley. Local US immigration claims das and Surendra Nath Bose are biggest agitators.

*1911* LET 25 May /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Notes Mr. Von Go Henberg has been making inquiries. Das is back. Claims to have lined up the Calcutta-Van. transport and that Bhag and Balwant are coming soon.

*1911* LET 18 March /MacGill to Scott/ jan-4 Rumor of 24 H. and 5 wives coming from HK.

*1911* VDC 12 July /H. banned from City Work/ jan-4

*1911* /Ch.72 Revised Statutes of B.C. 1911, Clause 7/ jan13 No C. J. Indian or H. on voters list. Ch.46, 10-11, George V, July 1, 1920 (Van. Elections Act): No one barred on account of race from provincial voting can vote federally.

*1912* VP 18 December /H. make Appeal to King/ p.1 H. to make appeal to King. Hope to meet King George while he is in India.

*1907* - *1912* SS /Newspapers/ p.15 apr-- Desh Sevak - Harnam S. and G.D. Kumar. Free Hindustani - Tarak Nath Das. Khalia Herald - Kartar S. Akali, 1911.

*1911* Mu /Kartar S. Akali/ p.165 apr-- Came to Canada.

*1910* - *1911* /Rules and Regulations of the Hindustani Assoc. of Van./ feb-1 Signed by Sundar S. Secretary at 1652 2nd Ave. *1911* Mu /First Child/ p.135 apr-- Jan. 13, 1911 to a H. shopkeeper in Fraser Mills of a 1906 immigrant. (Uday Ram)

*1911* VP 13 January /H. Born/ p.1 First H. born at New Westminster.

*1911* LET 10 May /MacGill to Scott/ jan-4 Has been refusing to grant certificated to H. who wish to leave temporarily. Hundreds have applied; can't be trusted. RG76 V.384 file 536999 Part 4. 1911-12.

*1911* LET 9 May /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 H. Rahim, Kumar team up with Dr. Spenser to form H. Temperance Assoc. First white alliance to Hop's knowledge.

*1911* LET 6 June /D. Spencer to Gov. Gen. in Council/ jan-4 Memorial in support of H. Friends of the H. secretary, Moral Reformer.

*1911* 26 May /Petition to Gov. Gen. in Council/ jan-4 Claim 6000 people $15,000,000. Issues: Wives, merchants, students and professionals. Continuous journey. Signed by 50 Sikhs (all) including Mohan Lal, Sarmund S., and Sundar S.of Victoria.

*1911* LET 29 March /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Suren Bose, agitator, wants to lecture in Van. He was not let in at White Rock. Hop to Cory, Apr. 6, Bose gives a talk in Van. Sikh Temple.

*1911* LET 30 May /Ellis and Brown, Solicitors, Van. to Oliver/ jan-4 Protests refusal to allow wives.

*1911* VP 17 April /Plea for Equal Rights/ p.3 H. plead for equal rights. Meeting of 500 in Van. Orange Hall. Suren M. Bose, graduate of Berkeley, addressed them. Both Sikhs and Moslems there. H. Rahim chaired the meeting.

*1911* May /Petition, Van. to Crewe, Secretary of State for India/ feb-1 Petition resulted from mass meeting of April 16 in Orange Hall. In proposals, first mention of Kartar Singh. <100>

*1911* VP 25 November /H. to See Premier/ p.1 A delegation of H. to see Premier (P.M.) Sunder, Teja, Hazarah, L.W. Hall. Nov.29, 1911, p.1: Talked to Robert Rogers, seems as if wives and children to be allowed in. W.D. Scott and W.W.Cory were also present. They asked for a total relaxation of requirements. Wives and children the only one likely.

*1911* LET 4 August /Hopkinson to Cory/ jan-4 Mrs. Hira S. released. Others planning a test with Sunder S. H. Brodie, CPR is uncertain. Postmaster is intercepting seditious material from France.

*1911* 1 July /First Woman/ jan-4 Mrs. Hira Singh and child admitted on grace.

*1911* 1 August /Hira S. wife and child allowed in/ feb-1 *1911* LET 24 September /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Telegram: COuld get more on Das in US. Mass meeting of H. to send a delegation to Ottawa re: wives and children. Hop to Cory, Sept.26, Mass meeting is Re: Bhag S. who could not get transport to Canada, either in Calcutta or HK. He was refused at San Francisco and went back to HK.

*1911* VP 16 December /Delegation Still in Ottawa/ p.1 Rogers agrees to allow wives and children in, but no other relaxations. Rogers will send an official to the coast to investigate.

*1911* OC 18 December /F.C.Blair, of Interior Dept. sent to B.C./ jan-4 Blair sent to B.C. regarding possilbility of changing the law. MacGill to Scott, Dec. 25, 1911, Transport companies calling daily regarding possiblities.

*1911* VP 16 December /F.C. Blair/ p.2 F.C. Blair sent to Van. to see about wives and children issue. Will come early in 1912. See about wives and children, continuous journey and $200 payments, altered.

*1911* LET /Women's Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, Toronto to Gov. Gen./ jan-4 Allow wives and children to come.

*1911* LET 28 December /Victoria Ts and LC to R.L. Borden and R. Rogers, Minister of Interior/ jan-4 Ts and LC submits anti-H. petition. Petition of Parkdale Presbyterian Church, Toronto is pro-H.

*1911* LET 25 October /MacGill to Scott/ jan-4 100 H. leaving on E. of Japan to visit homes. MacGill would not grant certificates. Evidently, Milne in Victoria was. Scott to Cory, Nov.11, Suggests H. could leave for up to one year.

*1911* September /Typed copies of The Aryan/ feb-1 1. Ex.: article: Canadian's warm welcome and Christian greetings to fellow-subjects from Hindustan. Follows a editorial from Sat. Sunset attacking Aryan, saying it does not want brown brothers. Then, an attack on Sarrel. 2. Article on protecting home industry. 3. On intent of H. to charter a steamer. From Times an article on grievances. Claims $300000 in Victoria and 2 million in Vna. real estate. Very extended, came from a W. Beer, letter in VDT. Article on T.N. Das meeting in San Francisco with women's club.

*1911* October /News-Advertiser/ feb-1 Bhag S., Trooper, British Indian Cavalry. Policeman in Hangkow. Came to Canada in 1905. Bhalwant, 25th Regiment of Infantry and priest. Hakan S. in 11th (King Edward's Own) Regiment of Lancers.

*1911* LET 13 October /Hop to Cory/ 12pp. feb-1 1. Talked with US official for a day. He is now very concerned about sedition at U. of California. 2. Bhag and Balwant S. with 180 others arrived in San Francisco Aug.24, 1911. 3. In Calcutta they instigated a suit re: transportation. 4.Das, Teja S., S.N. Bose, R.N. Puri all tried to get into San Francisco. 5. Das is president of the Friends of Hindoostan. Office in san Francisco. Several white women are members. 6. Das used guise of theosophy to speak at many meetings. 7. Swami Ram came about 1903. Began a soicety to help H. students when he died, to Dr. Heeber. Then Giren Nath Mookeyee, who turned it anti-British. About 1906 Das joined. He tried to affiliate with Trigunatita. They formed Samiti, (de Gessen is a member) a secret organization. Mookeyee is now agitating in India.

*1911* VDT 8 July /Article by Walter Baer, Editor/ jan-4 Extensive article, favorable to H. Large picture of Dr. Sundar S. MD. Milne's reply to that since no company provided through service to Canada from India, immigration was not possible.

*1911* VP 14 November /Sikh Regiment Suggested/ p.1 Hon. Sam Hughes suggests a Sikh regiment. He is minister of militia, federally. They are "second to none in the world". "Of course they would be kept separate from other troops..." "With own apartments and drill hall." VP Nov.15, 1911 p.6, thinks it is a very good idea.

*1911* LET 23 March / Hop to Cory/ feb-1 H. Rahim has been with Behary Lal Varma in chem. labs of McGill Univ. College.

*1911* LET 5 April /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 A spy: Kumar, Rahim and Sundar S. are in a secret society with headquarters in Seattle. Kumar is in correspondence with S. Krishnavarnia, Paris, and Madam Kumar, Geneva. He gets Indian Sociologist in the mail.

*1911* LET 7 June /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Postmaster seized a bundle of Bonde Mataram heading for Raja S. in Van.

*1911* LET 26 September /Malcolm to Cory/ feb-1 Gov. Gen. suggests: Let Hop go to US. British Ambassador has already contacted State Dept.

*1911* LET 18 September /Mr. Bryce, British Embassy, Washington to D.D. Malcom, Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-1 If government puts in a request to US gov. Das will not be naturalized.

*1911* LET /Hop to Cory/ 11pp. feb-1 Friends of Hindustan has died. Harnam S. in one of T.N. Das' associated. He is a student at U. of Cal. He was deported to the States from Van. in 1910.

*1911* LET 23 October /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 1. More worried still. Suggests a man be put in San Francisco. Local British Embassy is unconcerned. 2. Oct.5 another meeting re: delgation will not definitely send them to Ottawa.

*1911* LET 6 November /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Oct.16: Anniversary of Partition of Bangal. Seattle H. students were meeting. Very nationalistic. R.N. Ray, Jogesh Misra and G.D. Kumar.

*1911* LET 8 December /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 1. Has info. that Ajit S. and Sufi Amba Pershad departed from Punjab and are heading to US. 2. Bonde Mataram is being circulated via Seattle.

*1911* December /British Consulate General, Kobe/ feb-1 H. Ramin is Chagan Kheraj, an authority of Gov. of Bombay (police). Full name: Chagan Khairaj Varma a Lohana, Pabander State, Kathiawar. 46 years old. Went to Japan in 1895. Formed a partnership in Kobe for 7 years. He got into business debt and left.

*1911* LET 29 June /Hop to Cory/ feb-1 Is trying to feed US info. on Das, such that he will be declared an anarchist and not be naturalized. Kumar rumoured to be leaving for india-- possible reason: visit of King to India.

*1911* /The Aryan, Katar S. collab./ MG30 E281 V.1 #1 Aug.1911 p.3 Case of Hira S. where wives and children cannot land. V.1 #2 Sept.1911 Extensive article on H. immigration. Very rational, wants wives and children. v.1 #3 OCt. 1911 A more harsh article on "British Justice". V.1 #4 Nov.1911 p.3 Bhag S. came in 1905. Started present temple. Was in British India Calvary. Balwant S. 25th regiment of Infantry. Hakan S. 11th Regiment of Lancers. V.1 #5 Dec.1911 Deputation to Ottawa: Rev.L.W. Hall, Raja S. Sundar S. Sam Borden and Blair R. Rogers. Suggest that it is importatnt to give more rights to locals and those in India. V.2 #9 Nov. 1912, Shows opening of Victoria temple Oct.6 1912.

*1911* - *1912* /Abbotsford temple/ Also built writh regard to workers in local mill. (75) In 1932 the mill closed.

*1911* /Aryan/ Sept. 1911; Vol.1 Mar.1912 (?); Vol.2 April 1912 (?); Vol.- Nov.1912; and in KS collection Vol.1 (1,2,3,4,5); Vol.2(1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9) and Nov. 1912.

*1911* October /Aryan/ Abbotsford temple begun.

*1911* February-March /H. Dayal meets Teja S. at Harvard/ Teja persuades H. Dayal to go to California Brown: 85. H.Dayal soon left for Hawaii.

*1912* /Barry, John/ feb10 Phamphlet: sidelights of India represented from "The Bulletin" San Francisco 1912. Mostly speeches by Dayal.

*1912* /Lemieux/ jan-4 Lemieux active in parliament considering admission of women.

*1912* July /Chatterjee, R. in Modern Review 12(1)/ feb-2 From a Canadian.

*1912* December /Bonde Mataram Vol.4 #4/ feb10 Also Vol. 4 #6 (Feb.) and #7 (March). Nothing specifically Canadian. Vol.3 #4 (Dec. 1911), #3 (Nov, 1911), #11 (July 1912), and #12 (Aug. 1912).

*1912* /Publication of 1912 Official Asiatic Correspondence/ feb10 1907 - Mar. 1908. April - Dec. 1908. Jan 1908 - Dec. 1911.

*1912* MAJ /R.B.Bose- Lord Harding/ p.45 Rash Biliary Bose m% of Basanta Kuermar Biswas. Threw it Dec.1912, disguised as a woman.

*1912* /G.D. Kumar/ 1912: 10 Only two women then in B.C.

*1912* VP 30 January /Bail Paid/ p.1 Bail of many arrested for "riot" paid by H.

*1912* 26 January /Private Memorandum re: Hindu Immigration/ HH-1 P.69-1 Hindu Immigration with particular reference to the present agitation for the admission of wives and families ofthe H. now resident in Cda. Left Ottawa Dec.26, 1911. Must by Blair. He saw Teja, Raja. Agitation goes back a year. Professionals started it, now all feel it. Now about 2,500 H. One in three is married. Deputation: Mr. Hall, Teja S., Sundar S., Raja S. Sundar S. has tried to get and eastern continuous passage established. Thinks they are pushing wives as best strategy towards an open door. Suggests refusal because 1.B.C. feelings, a.Women's National Council, Van. completely against it, b.Ministerial Assoc. of Van. against, too.

*1912* /Immediate Outcry by paper afterword of Blair's Visit/ jan-4 Threat of undersell and watch. Ottawa Journal, Jan.4 1912, and Ottawa Free Press, Jan.6 1912, are against it.

*1912* LET /Scott to H.E. Herne/ jan-5 Blair report is very confidential and has never been filed.

*1912* VP 26 January /Clergymen Oppose Entry/ p.1 Clergymen in Van. oppose enrty. Jan.27, p.6 Editorial: Supports their stand.

*1912* VP 22 January /Two Women/ p.2 Two women not admitted because of stopover in HK.

*1912* /Background/ Balwant S.: Priest, 36th Sikh Infantry. Bhag S. 10th Indian Calvary.

*1912* LET 27 January /Hopkinson to F.C. Blair/ jan-4 Going to Montreal? Then to Ottawa re: Bhag and Balwant cases.

*1912* LET 22 January /MacGill to Scott/ jan-4 On Monteagle: Harnam Kor and infant girl, wives and children of Bhag S., Bikhi Vend village, Lahore. Bond of $200 to release wife and child. Have deportation order for HK. Affadavit of appeal. Copy of Harnam Kor deportation order: Jan 21, 1912 (#A575770). Affadavit of Bhag S. 1. arrived 1906, Secretary of Guru Nanak Mining and Trust Co., ($16,000 paid up shares) bought 160 acres at Eagle Harbar and then sold a profit. Married on Nov.28, 1910 to daughter of Nathoo S. of "Peshawer". Took 5 months to get tickets to come from HK to Van. Supported by lawyer's claim. Balwant's statement: Came 1906. Worked at Portage Mill, then priest ;of Sikh temple. Village: Khordupore in Jullendur. Wife: Kartar Kaur, from Hoshinpur, and 2 children. Deportation oder for all. Letter of all to Scott. Hira S. was first case.

*1912* LET 19 Janaury /B. Kavjar S. Sec. of KDS and Teja S., United India League to R. Rogers (Min. of Interior)/ jan-4 Note Bhag S. and Balwant S. to rrive. CPR HK decided they are normal immigrants.

*1912* 10 January /Petition by Building Trades Council of Ottawa/ jan-4 Against.

*1912* 23 January /Petition of KDS to Min. of Interior/ jan-4 Re: Bhag and Balwant S. Signed by Kartar S. (real estate broker) and many others. Total :125.

*1912* LET 21 January /MacGill to Scott/ jan-4 Bhag Singh's wife and children were rejected on arrival. Came from India via 3 3 months in HK. Men admitted. Wife and children free on bail..

*1912* VP 5 February /Cartoon/ p.1 Re: two women refused entry.

*1912* LET 20 February /Scott to Cory/ jan27 Re: Raise in salary for he notes he became an Inspector before leaving India. Salary goes to $1500.

*1912 VP 4 March /Two Women in Court/ p.1 Habeas Corpus proceedings re: 2 women in court of Justice Morrison. Kartar Kaur, with Udom, Nazaran = Balwant S. family. Harnam Kaur with small baby is Bhag S. family. Both have been residents since early 1906. Arriv with wives on Monteagle on Jan.21. Tried in both Rangoon and Calcutta to get continuous passage.

*1912* LET 16 March /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 Delegation of Sundar S., Teja S. and Raja have returned from Ottawa. On case of Bhag and Balwant, no success.

*1912* LET 6 March /MacGill to Scott/ jan-4 Case still pending. Bhag and Balwant first went to San Francisco, where they were rejected, despite efforts of Teja S. and T.N.Das.

*1912* LET 26 March /Scott to Hop/ jan-4 Confidential: Get information on Teja S/ to bring him under terms of Extradition Treaty.

*1912* VP 30 April /Two Women Deported/ p.1 Two women to be deported. Order received from Ottawa. May 1, they receive Habeas Corpus through Supreme Court. of B.C.

*1812* March April /Vol. 1 and 2 of The Aryan/ feb-2 First: straight Sikh religion. Second: More insistent.

*1912* 20 April /Fingerprints of Beliari Lal Verma/ feb-2 In Vancouver city jail. Pictures accompany. Charge: Perjury. An agitator (Hop).

*1912* LET 22 April /Cory to Scott/ jan-5 Deport Bhag S. and Balwant S. wives. Reed to Scott, May 1, 1912,: Was served Habeas Corpus re: women. Women released on $2000 bail. Deportation order made a great stir. Made papers all across Canada.

*1912* LET 17 April /Scott to Malcolm Reed, Van. and G.L. Milne, Vic./ jan-5 Confidential: Look for hookworm.

*1912* LET 16 April /Hopkinson to Cory/ jan-5 Word that S. Ontario sailed from Bombay with 300-400 H. Suggest confidentially that the medical officers find dangerous diseases and deport. Cory to Scott, same day, affirms Hop.

*1912* LET 22 April /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 G.D. Kumar has ended Swadesh Sevak and now runs Span of Life. In it,an article by Jogesh Chandra Misra. Has he started a pottery in Banden Oregon?

*1912* VP 11 May /Ram Chand/ p.1 Ram Chnad, a student returning to Canada is refused entry, even though he has a letter from Ottawa which allows it. He goes to Seattle.

*1912* July /Aryan/ June 13 second H. child is born in Canada to wife of Hira S. From Aug. 1911 issue Hira s. and wife and daughter allowed to land.

*1912* LET 29 June /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 Mr. W. Atkinson, Calcutta is in town re: possible direct Japanese steamship connection to Van.

*1912* LET 23 May /Cory to Reed/ jan-5 H.H. Stevens suggests women be let in without creating precedent. (Bhag and Balwant families). Do it.

*1912* VP 6 January /Women's Council of Van. Oppose/ p.1 Women's Council of Van. oppose entry of wives and children. See H.H. Stevens. S. claims that Sundar Singh was once the enemy of Teja S. but now they are working together. Sundar S. is in the East raising support. H.H. opposes entry.

*1912* /H.H. Stevens Opposed to H. Women and Families entering Canada/ jan-4 Manitoba Free Press: Forget about reuniting families. Sundar S. is an agitator. Teja S. is "leader of H. on Pacific coast" and "a student". Till recently these men were bitter enemies.

*1912* LET 8 July /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 Many Sikhs have gone to Argentina and Panama and Mexico. Many locals have guns.

*1912* LET 13 August /Hop to Cory/ jan-5 Locals to wire G.H. Goakle, member of the Legislative Council of India re: treatment. They are to wire $400 to him.

*1912* LET 13 August /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 Locals to wire G.K. Goakle to come to Cda. from Britain. $400 subscribed at a meeting.

*1912* November /Aryan/ feb-9

*1912* LET 27 November /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 Will go to San Francisco re: information on Tirumal Acharya.

*1912* LET 7 November /Hop to Cory /feb-2 In a letter notes that by Mar. 1913 he will probably not be in the service.

*1912* LET 5 November /Malcolm Reid to Scott/ jan27 Hop did not take his pay. He gets $25 per month additional from the US for translations.

*1912* LET 16 November /Committee of Privy Council to Sec. of State for Colonies/ jan-5 Government will allow certain H. to enter temporarily. Will decide at port of entry.

*1912* 19 December /Memorial 82 of 1912 from Dept. of Commerce and Industry, Emigration to Lord Crewe, Sec. State of India/ feb-2 Intercede and let wives and children enter.

*1912* /New Westminster temple/ On Lulu Island.

*1912* 15 March /Sark Bill of March 15/ feb12 Sec. of State for India takes exception. Rather: make license mandatory then do not grant license. Harcourt ot Gov. Gen. Aug. 17, 1912.

*1912* 2 September /PC 2431/ feb12 Suggests to Sark to amend the law.

*1912* LET 3 June /Reid to Scott/ jan-5 Allowd 8 H. to return to Van. All previous residents. Fears reaction if does not allow it.

*1912* LET 12 October /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 About a large scheme to embezzle H. money on real estate by "International Financiers" (white) in collaboration with 2 Sikhs. One of them was wanted in India on a scheme that purported to get people to Cda.

*1912* LET 1 September /Bhag S. to Gov. Gen./ feb-2 Hakam S. wife and children stuck in HK for one year. CPR will not sell tickets. President of KDS.

*1913* LET 22 March /G.D. Kumar/ feb-2 Notes that Uday ram Joshi died a year after his wife came. Hakam S.'s wife ided while waiting in HK. The children are still there.

*1912* /Sansar/ feb-2 Showa Vic. Sikh parade for opening of temple.

*1912* LET 26 March /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 Requests forwarded information on T.N.Das so that it can be sent to the US to stop his naturalization.

*1912* LET 11 June /Hopkinson to Cory/ jan-5 List of H. who are member of the Socialist Part of Cda. Bhag, Balwant, Guru D.H. Kumar and 9 others. Attempt to convict all H. providing translations of I.W.W. literature. Has got India address to keep watch over material sent to India. Notes murder of Jagir S. at hands (possibly) of Ram S. and Hira S. happened in Kootenays, thrown under train.

*1912* LET 7 June /J.S. Smith, Office of Examiner Dept. of Commerce and Labour, Seattle to Hop/ feb-2 T.N.Das was denied because he did not give evidence of when he entered US. Will try again.

*1912* LET 16 November /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 Oct. 19 at Styles Hall, Berkeley, celebrated "Nation Day". T.N.Das, Suren M. Bose, Har Dayal and faculty of UC spoke. Har Dayal has given $500 scholarship for H. students.

*1912* LET 22 February /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 H. Rahim has been associated with the I.W.W. Has spoken to them.

*1912* LET September /Van. Mayor to KDS/ feb-2 Could ex-soldiers show up to visit of Duke of Connought? Bhag S. to Mayor, Sept.8: No. Hop to Cory Sept. 25: Many Sikhs were not informed. Harpoor S. told us at New Westminster when meeting the Duke.

*1912* VP 29 March /H. Rahim Arrested/ p.1 H. Rahim arrested for voting (actually for perjury) He was a Socialist Party Scrutineer in ward 4 #2838 on the Van. voter's list. W.J.Boswer says his name will be immediately removed.

*1912* 1 April /Rahim to go to Trial/ p.3 Rahim sent for trial. Upon arrest he had a quantity of I.W.W. literature. Hopkinson says it arrived 18 months ago on Moana.

*1912* LET 1 April /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 Hop has sent Prov. Gov. information that H. Rahim has voted. He was a scutineer for the Socialist Party. He is then arrested for perjury. Hop used the event ot search his home. He is a member of the Socialist Party, as was Bhag, Balwant, raja and Sundar.

*1912* /Translation of Sansar/ feb-3 Published by Karbar Singh. It is very moderate and Sikh oriented.

*1912* /Copy of Sansar/ feb-2 Victoria: by Sundar sungh (?) and Kartar S. Pictures in front of Sikh Temple Victoria.

*1912* LET 11 October /Hop to Cory/ feb-2 new temple, Victoria, dedicated Oct.6. Teja S. from US was master of ceremonies. Dr. Sundar S. and Bhag S. also came from Van. 450 went from Van. 750 altogether. Huge parade with twenty on horseback. 3 women were there. Sansar was distributed. $1500-2000 in expenses for dedication.

*1912* LET 18 January /MacGill to Scott/ jan-4 Telegram: First total 2000 H. to US. 15 months ago US tried harder to stop. Claims local working class needs not served by visit of Teja and Sundar ($1500 cost). They have organised a working class temple committee.

*1912* LET 16 March /Hopkinson to Cory/ jan-4 Notes Sundar S. at meetings of Sikhs. Suggest continued agitation re: leaders in India etc. Ex.: partition of Bengal. Delegation has lost face in community. Masses are reconciled to ban on women.

*1912* LET 27 December /Hop to Cory / feb-2 Re: Proposed trip to England of local H. Earlier trip of "educated" to England produced no results. Hence agitation to send the uneducated. Compromise: Teja, Sunar S., Bhag S. Balwant S. $1500 has been raised. Sundar S. and Kartar S. have been raising funds to set a press from India. <200>

*1912* VP 28 February /Women and Children Rule not Relaxed/ p.6 Editorial Fed. gov. has decided not to relax women and children rule. This is a direct rebuff of eastern support. It will be hard on H. but necessary for the good of the larger community.

*1912* LET 11 March /Series of letters from Scott/ jan27 Notes that due to a demand for railway workers, the continuous journey regulation will be relaxed for certain nationalists.

*1913* LET 9 July /W. Roche to H.H. / HH-3 Will allow wife and children of Hakam S., then in HK to enter.

*1913* VP 16 July /Wife and Children Allowed in/ p.1 Wife and children of Hakam S. allowed in. They have been in HK for 12 months. Miniter of Interior, Roche, allows this as act of grace. Hakam is understood not to be a member of an agitating group.

*1913* /An Appeal for Fair Play/ Thesis of Queen Victoria's jubilee: saw C. on return to East. By 1913 the following had been let in: Hira S. wife and children, Bhag S. wife and children, Balwant wife and children, Sarda S. wife and children. Rars S., Hakam S.:m. and 4 s., Bhattan S. brother, Sewa S. family, and Teja S. wife and children.

*1913* /N.S. Sirha et al/ Hakim S. : family in HK for two years. Ex-19th Cavalry Bengal Lancers.

*1913* LET 21 January /Hop to Cory, San Francisco/ feb-3 Tarak Nath Das may be Jogendro Nath Das.

*1913* LET 11 January /Hop to Cory, San F./ feb-2 Har Dayal, T.N. Das, others have had celebration re: attempt on Lord Harding, Viceroy. Hop had received work that he was marked for asassination. US Immigration would act on deportation, if information was provided. Har Dayal's secretary of the Radical Club.

*1913* LET 15 January /HOp to Cory, San F./ feb-2 There are many H. students who are anti-Har Dayal. Now having Berkeley mail watched by US officials. Makes request that someone be sent to San F. for 6-12 months.

*1913* LET 20 January /Hop to Cory, San F./ feb-3 Das is working for P.G. and E. at Colfax as a General Foreman. He went to an I.W.W. meeting January 19. Har Dayal is secretary of local assoc. He spoke.

*1913* VP 27 February /5 H. Killed in train accident/ p.1 Accident occured at Port Moody. They were the leaders of the community.

*1913* LET 20 February /Scott to --/ jan27 Hop being sent to England.

*1913* LET 24 Febraury /Mr. H. Gwyther, to Reid/ jan-5 KDS meeting, Nan S. and Balwant s. to be sent to India, as spy. Actually, Balwant, Narain and Ram S. went.

*1913* LET 8 March /Gov. Gen. to Harcourt/ feb-2 Hopkinson left for England about February 28, 1913.

*1913* LET 8 March /Harcourt to Gov. Gen., secret/ feb-2 Sec. of State for India puts great importance in Hopkinson's work. Informantion received is important. Keep mail lists coming.

*1913* 17 March /3 H. Leave Van. for England/ feb-2 Balwant, priest, Narian S. and Rand S. (Nand S.?)

*1913* LET 16 April /Malcolm Reid to H.H./ HH-2 Re: G.D. Kumar's newspaper critique of an H.H. speech. If H.H. wishes, he will have the "friendly" press not print this part of material.

*1913* 22 April /Note from Hop/ feb-3 Teja s. had wife and 2 children. He was leaving for India.

*1913* LET 24 February /H.W.Gwyther to Immigration Agent, Van./ feb-2 Went to a meeting of KDS and Van. India League on Feb.22. H. Rahim and G.D. Kumar active. *1913* LET 29 April /Hop to Cory/ feb-3 Of the 3 who went to England, Nand S. was an associate of Har Dayal.

*1913* May /Sansar translation/ feb-3 A bit more objective.

*1913* LET 21 May /Memo from L. Harcourt to Gov. of Cda./ feb-3 Includes: 1. note from sir W. Wedduburn who would like to support the delegates. 2. reply: Sec. of State will not grant an interview because they have not shown that they have represented to Gov. of Cda. Nut Sec. of state of India wants him (Sir J. Anderson) to grant an informal interview. 3. Reply: Nand s. is prepared to show documentary evidence. 4. Delegation of KDS and United India League, Van. request interview with Sir John Anderson, Under-Sec. of State for Colonies. 5. Note of interview: no British jurisdiction.

*1913* May /The Sansar Vol.1 #4/ feb-3 In English and Gurmuckli. Hop to Cory, June 10, 1913, Sundar S. imported a press from England.

*1913* LET 22 July /J.W. Holderness, India Office to Under-Sec. fo State Colonial Office, forwarded by Harcourt, "most secret" in original/ feb-3 1. Crewe praises work of Hopkinson. 2. Could Hop continue to visit San F. and for longer periods in the future? 3. Could he send reports direct to India Office? In return he could have India Office information on subversives. 4. Indian Gov. will pay Hop an additional 60 pounds per year, plus another 60 to collect information--could be higher if needed.

*1913* LET 18 June /Hop to Cory/ feb-3 June 15: big local meeting re: delegation to England. 193 present. No results in England.

*1913* - *1914* Ma /G.D. Kumar/ p.20 apr-- Published "Swadeshi Sevak". Reprinted Indian revolutionary tracts.

*1913* /Photo of 4 H. including (?) T.N.Das/ G21 #332 Vol.10a in envelope feb-4

*1913* /I. Broad/ jan-8 Appeal for Fair Play...p.13: Lists those wives and children let in: 6 wives, 1 mother, about 10-12 children.

*1913* /Wallinger is a CID Officer in Lond~/ feb-3

*1913* LET 1 April /Scott to Cry/ jan=5 Notes co}munication fr} G~. oæ India re: request to relax limitations on wives and children. If done, must be only regulation of continuous passage.

*1913* 30 May /In Parliament: Sen. Bostock to Gov./ jan-5 Are H. leaders going to India. Gov.: yes.

*1913* LET 5 March /B.N. Bosworth Smith, Dep. Commissioner Ferozopore, to Scott/ jan-5 1. Have many applications to leave by Jats. 2. One Sundar S. in 8 years earned Rs 15,000 and is now back. First worked in sawmill then started a store, then acted as interpreter, and in real estate.

*1913* VP 15 March /Ahkay Kumar Mozumdar/ jan-5 Mozumdar, a yogi, called a "free white person" and granted US citizenship. Reid worried as above could then enter Canada . (to Scott, May 5, 1913) Scott replies: yes, under PC920, but not under PC 926, as he is Asiatic.

*1913* Seattle Star 26 June /No Law to Bar Immigration/ jan-6 200 arrive in Seattle. "They breed like rats, live in squalor, and die by the million of plague and starvation. Stop Immigration!"

*1913* VDT 13 March /Ram Chand Bhandwaj and wife travel first class/ jan-5 Although travelling first class, with servant, they are not allowed to land on a visit.

*1913* LET 30 May /Hop to Cory/ feb-3 G.D. Kumar sailed to India via San F. on May 24.

*1913* _______, 19 May /H. Were Barred/ jan-6 New westminster: H. barred from getting rights to homstead 40 acres.

*1913* 6 June /Series of Minutes of Interrogation of H. Returning to Cda., R.J. Reid, Hop, C. Wilson officiating/ jan-6 Baboo S., worked CPR. Ibraham S. worked CPR, Hastings Shingle Mills. Beer S., indentified by Ram s., Bela S. and Baboo S. Re.: Briani S., reference to the "900" ship, 1905, and the "700" ship, 1906. Identified by Dr. Davidchand and Bela, Bhag, Ram. Worked at Small and Buk Lin's mill in New Westminster. Hakan S.: CPR, cutting bush, "H. boss" was Juggernath. Noe only 3 H. women: wives of Teja S., Balwant and Bhag S. Also: Duleeps, Pentah S., Banta S., Natha S. (Worked at Wellington, Pacific Coast Coal Co.) Notes Balwant S. is in England. Atta Mohamet. all admitted. Note complicity of some Sikhs.

*1913* LET 4 July /H.H. Stevens, MP to T. Crothers, Acting Minister of Interior/ jan-6 Request to permit entry of wife and children of Hakam S. as an act of grace.

*1913* LET 10 July /Cory to Scott/ jan-6 Admits family of Hakam S. as an act of grace. Mother and 4 children

*1913* LET 30 September /Scott to Mr. M. Chell%/ jan-6 T.R.E. MacInnes letter--? 1. Problem are H. British citizen? If so, are they coming from HK which would equal coming from a country of citizenship. If so, danger.

*1913* LET 15 September /Scott to US Commissioner of Immigration, Montreal/ jan-6 Notes Hop: 1. brought up in India, 2. worked for CID, 3. worked for Immigration.

*1913* 24 October /Appeal of Deportation, Vic. Re: Gurdit Singh/ jan-7 Gurdit Singh, son of Pentab S., 1. been in Cda. before?, No. 2. Amount of money? 8 pounds gold. Went Calcutta by way of HK. HK to Van. Forced to buy a return ticket for $160 Mexican. Mr. A. Davie is his counsel. Others acted for other deportees. One one: Hop notes he investigated a Pooran S. at Enderby in 1908 re: robbery. He got a year. Some have Kartar S. as interpreter, on behalf of counsel, and C. Darling as counsel.

*1913* LET 11 June /Malcolm Reid to F.C. Blair/ jan20 1. Claims CPR, HK will sell tickets to anyone having a document with H. name and Vancouver. 2. Suggests having R. out certificates to deal with CPR. 3. Will reduce long deportation case which are focus of agitation. June 25, 1913, Scott to Cory: Do it? July 22: approved.

*1913* LET 5 August /H.W. Brodie, CPR Van. to Reid/ jan20 If RO certificates needed, they will shut down H. traffic.

*1913* LET 21 June /Hop to Scott/ jan-6 Getting reports of passengers from US Commission of Immigration in N.Y. Some H. are trying to enter Cda. from the East, via Havana.

*1913* LET 7 July /Hamburg-American Line , N.Y. to Scott/ jan-6 Have 32 Indians destined to Woodstock N.B. Reply, July 7: will not admit.

*1913* LET 1 August /Malcolm Reid to Scott/ jan20 Point out prior letter was written by Hop and it was his idea to R. out H.

*1913* LET 8 August /Cory to Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-3 Arrangement re: Hop is alright.

*1913* LET August /Hop to Cory/ jan-6 Notes arrival of Sewa S., who brought tickets for his relatives. Kartar S. Jowalla, Lutchoo S., Mairya S. Nippon Yusen Kaisha SS Line issued 11 return tickets in Vic. for Calcutta to Victoria, July 1912. Had 200 allowed entry.

*1913* LET 1 August /Hop to Cory/ jan-6 4 H. including woman and 2 children arrive in Vic. Took advantage of tickets sold in July 1912. Complied with regulations but being strictly examined for "hookworm".

*1913* LET 2 September /Reid to Milne/ jan-6 Don't use Dr. Sundar S. as interpreter. Publishing "Sansar" in 630 Speer Ave., Vic. Vancouver is issuing certificates to returning H. with photos.

*1913* VP 31 July /Victoria Alarmed/ p.1 Victoria is alarmed over H. and Russian immigrants. Mrs. Indar, 2 children, and 2 males arrive. Sundar S. has come to help them get in. Aug. 28, 1913, p.1 : Another party arrives in Vic. (3 people). Nippon Yusen Kaisha has service from Calcutta and Bombay to HK and these commect with trans-Pacific ships of the same line. Previous party (31 July) was admitted. Fear now is that unlimited immigration may result.

*1913* LET 27 November /Reid to Scott/ jan20 Notes a H. had tried to get two R.O certificates - one in Van. and one in Vic.

*1913* LET 25 November /Reid to Scott/ jan-8 Davidchand rumoured to be bringing 60 H. from HK.

*1913* 7 November /Petition of the Duke of Connought, about the 39/ jan-8 Many signatures. A number of Khans, Aktars, Joshi, H. Rahim, Sohan Lal.

*1913* LET 18 December /Reid to Cory/ jan-8 Confidential: H. about to publish a newspaper.

*1913* Mu /Bhagwan and Sundar S./ p.195 apr-- Were enemies. Confirmed by Hop.

*1913* LET 2 December /M. Reid to W. Scott/ HH-7 Has forced ship companies to stop accepting passengers who pay a return fare from HK.

*1913* LET 8 July /G.D. Kumar to T.N. Das/ feb-3 Going to "establish base in Manila" a forwarding depot for Far East.

*1913* LET 5 November /G.D.Kumar, Manilla, to Rev. Grant, Victoria/ feb-4 Can't get back to Van. First, no money, then, no tickets could be bought.

*1913* LET 21 October /Malcolm Reid to W. Scott/ HH-4 Not one person would testify that Bhagwan s. was a new immigrant. Ordered deported today.

*1913* 21 October /Minutes of Board of Inquiry Re: Bhagwan S./ HH-5 Natha S. is an alias. 7 locals, originals, swore he was Natha S.

*1913* LET 16 October /Gov. Gen. to Colonial Sec.-Secret/ feb-3 Fear influx of H. Will amend regulations such that until Mar.31, 1914, all general unskilled labour classes are banned from B.C. entry, due to labour market.

*1913* LET /Scott to Hop - in Code/ jan-6 Telegram: Aug.13, 1913. Reply: Aug. 14, 1913. Coded (rush) Have not information on subject. Neither ship is local....purchasing boat by that name at San F. Will use her on far Pacific Coal Oil Trade to Port...Will deploy as new information. First: wire on any information re: direct sailings from India to Pacific Coast. Second: No Information. Allegedly ship Simla being bought by local syndicate. Later Letter: Locals would not try because they understood that then H. would be totally banned.

*1913* VP 9 July /Admission of Wives Debated/ jan-6 Admission of H. wives debated. Prospective minister K.G. Grant deplores situation.

*1913* LET /14 June /Malcolm Reid to H.W. Brodie, CPR General Passenger Agent/ jan-6 Private and Confidential: 38 H. arrived on E, of Russia--some are fraudulently "returning". Going to take up question of regulations with Scott.

*1913* LET 5 November /Milne to Reid/ jan-8 Justice Murphy rejects H. They appeal to Chief Justice. Raja and Kartar S. to the Duke of Connought, Gov. Gen. We urge you to stop deportations of 9 Sikhs. Scott to Milne, Nov.19, Minister rejects: deport.

*1913* SS /Bhagwan S. Gyani/ p.11 apr-- Notes that he was deported despite writ of Habeas Corpus.

*1913* LET 12 November /Scott to Cory/ jan-8 Must go above B.C. courts or will likely lose appeals case. Sect.33 of Act says courts can't act to interfere. Hence--ignore court and see what happens.

*1913* LET 14 November /Milne to Scott/ jan20 Doesn't think one year is sufficient, in regard to the distance to India.

*1913* LET 5 November /Scott to Reid/ jan20 H. out over a year will lose domicile. RO certificate will equal legal domicile.

*1913* VP 29 November /Orders in Council are Ultra Vires/ p.1 Justice Hunter (chief justice) rules that the orders in council are ultra vires. This was in relation to the forced deportation of Bhagwan S. a week ago. J.E. Bird argued the case. The other H. are also represented. 4 have withdrawn, leaving 35. Dec.1, 1913, p.1: Appeal not likely. Cabinet to discuss the matter. Eastern labour is angry.

*1913* LET 27 November /Milne to Scott/ jan-8 20 H. are on Chicago Maru. Propose to reject on misrepresentation. Scott to Cory, Nov.28, 1913: Until new orders are drafted, will probably have to allow H. in.

*1913* VP 27 November /Chicago Maru Arrives/ p.1 Chicago Maru arrives with 56 H. recently arrived on another ship. Most are returning immigrants, but the others have come from HK. Re: case just ruled, they may have to be let in.

*1913* /Punjabi Tract: "Tyranny, Tyranny"/ feb-5 Written and circulated in B.C. Written in Punjabi. Violent: attacks deportation of Bhagwan S. Bhagwan worked in Mill and gave lectures. Give account. Signed by the Revolutionary Society.

*1913* LET 24 November /Milne to Scott/ jan-8 Chief Justice found O. in C. faulty and released 39 H. 926 was invalid and ultra vires because not in accord with statute Sec.37. 920 omitted naturalized which was present in Sec.38 of Act. Deportation orders did not specify section violated.

*1913* LET 25 October /Hop to Cory/ jan-6 Of the 39 held about 30 had Cdn. residence, gotten from returnees in HK. All held for deportation. H. council going for Habeas Corpus. Note: O.in C. 920 and 926 were May 9, 19--% Nov. 5 Hop to cory: Justice Murphy in Vic. denies trying Justice Hunter in Van. Nov.8, Scott to Milne: if necessary use "hookworm" argument.

*1913* LETR 20 October /Hop to Cory/ 7pp. jan-6 1. Plot to use Osaka Yoshen Kaisha Line to come as "returnees" from HK. 56 arrived on 17th. 39 detained. 2. Bhagwan S. arrested for deportation. 3.Meeting of 800 in Dominion Hall petition re: Bhagwan S. 4. Bhagwan came, Sept.30, 1912 as an illegal "returnee". 5. The 56 returnees are several Van. leaders and Sundar Singh and lawyer Mr. H. Hall--tried to be present at boards of inquiry, rejected. 6. Hop threatened --claim that Bhagwan let in by Hop for money.

*1913* 5 December /District Court of US, N. District of California/ jan-8 Denies Habeas Corpus to some Sikhs. Does not like the fact that Dept. of Labour has total control.

*1913* LET 9 December /Milne to Scott/ jan-8 Loses case of 14 in front of Justice Gregory of Supreme Court.

*1913* VP 9 December /14 Released/ p.1 14 H. who came on the Seattle Maru to Vic. are released on Habeas Corpus by Justice Gregory.

*1913* VP 9 December /Reid Charged/ p.1 Malcolm R.J.Reid is charged with contempt of court re: Bhagwan S. deportation. H. are sending prepaid fare to Bhagwan in HK in order to return to Cda.

*1913* LET 15 December /Reid to Scott/ jan20 1. The H. are openly boasting that they always beat the Gov. in court. 2. Deportation of Bhagwan S. has shaken them, as has arrest of 4 for perjury at the trial.

*1913* VP 9 December /Embargo/ p.3 Embargo placed on artisans and laborers until March 31, 1914 re: entry to B.C. The order is general, but is aimed at H. immigration.

*1913* LET 31 December /Gov. Gen. to Harcourt, Sec. of State for Colonies/ feb-3 39 Sikhs detained in Vic. were released by Courts under Habeas Corpus. This means new rules must be effected.

*1913* LET 16 December /Reid to Scott/ jan20 Wants H. barred from coming from Seattle to ship out on Cdn. ships.

*1913* LET 9 December /Under Sec. of State, Colonial Office to Goverment of Cda./ feb-3 Crewe agrees with Harcourt that Canada should allow wives and children consideration.

*1913* LET 20 December /K.J. Grant, Van. to M. Reid/ HH-23 Should ship to H. off to somewhere in the Empire. Could then do their own thing.

*1913* 25 December /Memorial 86 of 1913, Gov. of India, Dept. C. and I. Emigration to Lord Crewe/ feb-4 Amend continuous passage to allow wives and children.

*1913* December /PC 897/ jan-9 Forbids landing of worker on Pacific Coast until Sept.30. Only agricultural allowed.

*1913* LET 9 July /Hop to J. Wallinger, London/ feb-3 Sukumar Chatterjee was arrested several times in India Re: agitation. He was on the bomb-throwing committee, Delhi. Chatterjee is in Sacramento.

*1913* LET 16 OCtober /Hop to Cory/ feb-3 About 6-8 students practicing with firearms in Berkeley.

*1913* 31 October /Speech by Har Dayal, San F./ feb-3 Very radical. About 12 pp. steno report.

*1913* LET 31 December /Hop to Cory/ feb-4 H.D. sent Gherdr% to many impatient Indians, including Motilal Nehru.

*1913* LET 31 July /Richard McBride to Prime Minister, copy to Reid/ jan-6 Re: Copy of a letter received from Lahore. Notes disloyalty of Sikh regiment in 1907 - 36th Sikhs and 23 Sikh Pioneers. Very little seditious material coming from B.C. but Surendra Mohan Bose, Tarak Nath Das, Har Dayal, "Huru Datt Kumar" (G.D. Kumar) Saint Nihal Singh, Teja S., Thakur Das are all wanted by CID. Would like to send a CID officer to the Pacific Coast.

*1913* /Mittal, 1977/ p.76 3 delegates see Lt. Gov. of Punjab and Viceroy. See M. O'Dwyer, India as I Knew It. p.191.

*1913* 25 May /Emma Goldman/ feb-3 Notice of Lecture.

*1913* LET 18 June /Hop to Cory/ feb-3 Had gotten enough information to US officials to get Har Dayal deported.

*1913* /Many letters to and From Berkeley group to Radicals/ feb-2 Includes Emma Goldman, Madame Cernima.%

*1913* /Hindustani Workers of th Pacific Coast/ Sohan S. Bhakna, President. Har Dayal, Secretary. <300>

*1913* LET 23 June /Harcourt to Gov. Gen./ feb-3 Information from India insufficient to arrest Har Dayal is he enters Cda.

*1913* August /Report A. Tilton Steele to Hop, San F./ feb-3 1. Emma Goldman most rabid and revolutionary leader in US. 2. Har Dayal was a big fellow in I.W.W. 3. Met Har Dayal. Only came to Goldman lectures because of Tilton's request to meet. H. students were his preserve. 4. Har Dayal, was head of Bakunin Club. In asking others why Har Dayal never showed they explained he doesn't like to mix with Bourgeoisie anarchists. He wasn't philosophical, he wanted action.

*1913* /Hindustani Assoc. Astoria Ore./ Late 1912, attempts to coordinate activities re: Har Dayal etc. H. Assoc. of Pacific Coast, March 1913, idea to start Ghadar. First run Nov.1913.

*1913* LET 14 November /Hop to Cory/ feb-3 Has rented a house for whole family. H. are entering the US from Manilla.

*1913* 14 November /Hop, San F. to Cory/ feb-3 Hundreds of "Yugantar Ashram" are in the mail to India. Stop them.

*1913* LET 17 November /Joseph Pope, Under Sec. State for External Affairs, to Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-3 Hop to be in San F. for several months re: H.

*1913* 17 November /Hop Report, San F./ feb-3 Har Dayal lecture--very seditious re: bombs etc. Gobin Behaz Lal is Dayal's assistant.

*1913* 22 November /A Tilton Steele/ feb-3 Has infiltrated many San F. groups.

*1913* LET 1 December /Hop to Cory / feb-3 Dayal has been publishing 3 issues since Nov.1. Kartar Singh Siraba is the main writer.

*1913* LET 12 December /Hop, San F. to Cory/ feb-3 First edition of Ghadar is in Gurmukli. 4000 copies. Has someone watching Dayal place all day.

*1913* LET 17 December /Hop, San F. to Cory/ feb-3 Yugantar Ashram being mailed to Madras with return of Singer Sewing Machine Co. San F. Hop to Cory, Dec. 19: Press paid for $1800 cash.

*1913* December /Hop has H. Spy in San F./ feb-4 H.E. Paudiau (Peters). Another: Rulyaram. Hop to Cory, Dec.27: Dayal has a local priter do up envelopes with fake company returns for Ghadar.

*1913* 27 December /Declaration Meeting, Sikh Temple, V./ HH-16 H. rahim started Hindustanee to counter H.H.S. Shal Lal read a poem from Ghadar. Kashi ram read his own, re: killing traitors. Signed by: Naurer S., Sajn S., Prem S., Pal S., Nather S., Baggat S., Caval S., ratan S., Jaggat S.

*1913* 27 December /Witnessed Sikh meeting at Van. Sikh temple/ feb-4 H. rahim was leader. Suggested that 3-4 "traitorous H." should be fixed. S. Chan Lal read a poem from Ghadar. Kashi Ram read his own poem attacking Bela, Baboo, Carya Ram, Reid, and Hop of being enemies to be done away with.

*1913* LET 30 December /Malcolm reid to Cory/ feb-3 "Mutiny" (Ghadar) will be published at the Sikh temple, Van. Hop is having Ghadar mail inventoried also active Re: finding where it's going.

*1914* VP 17 January /Deportation Cause of H. Troubles/ feb-4 Bela s. charges Jewel S. with assault. Claims J. and others are convinced Bela's actions led to deportation of Bhagwan S. Attack was on Dec. 6, 1913 in a H. restaurant.

*1913* LET 29 December /Hop, San F. to Cory/ feb-4 Spies tell Hop that in St. John's Ore. $2100 collected by Har Dayal for Ghadar. Are taliking about dynamite etc. and bombs for India.

*1913* /O'Dwyer/ p.191 3 Sikh delegated gave "inflamatory" speeches across Punjab, 1913. Balwant was arrested by siamese in 1915, deprted to 2nd Lahore Censp. case and hurry. Nand S. Sinha was a Har Dayal's dinner of Dec. 25, 1912 celebrating attack on Harding.

*1913* LET 17 February /Hop to Cory/ feb-9 Har Dayal is in correspondence with Sundar S.

*1913* /Hop's Cypher Book for names of H./ feb-9 <320 End of Box 2>

*1914* 22 May TF /KM/ apr-- p.24 Note via J. crewman to Mit.S. He hires Edward J. Bird. p.25 Reid did not allow Bird on board. p.26 Ferg claims W.D. Scott's "pro-white biases were well known". (Not so clear) p.26 Munro claims 90 have trachoma. p.27 Robert Reid, lawyer for government. p.28 Borden wants a single test case.

*1914* 10 March /Hop returned to Vancouver/ feb-4

*1914* LET 21 July /Gov. Gen. to Harcourt/ feb11 Government will use "Rainbow". No unnecessary force will be used.

*1914* 23 July /KM leaves/ feb11

*1914* Mu /KM returns/ apr-- 24 were allowed to land. 7 from shore went back.

*1914* 23 June /Member of Meeting in Dominion Hall/ feb11 Mayor Baxter as chair. 23pp.

*1914* VP 23 July /KM leaves Van. Harbour/ p.1 352 on board.

*1914* TF /KM July 22,23/ apr-- p.136-7 Gurdit agrees to go in writing. Food list included: 800 sacks flour. 6000 lb. sugar, 5000 lb. potatoes, 6000 lb. butter, 2000 lb. rice, 240 cases milk, 760 lb. tea, 200 lb. tobacco etc. Sailed July 23.

*1914* VP 22 July /Pictures of People on KM/ p.1 Whole page devoted to fact that steam is up on the ship. P.4 Indian officials are fearful that violence in Van. may spark rioting in India. Also picture of Hop.

*1914* 21 June /Minutes of Meeting of H. held in Dominion Hall, 21 pp./ feb11

*1914* LET 21 July /H.H. Stevens to Borden/ feb11 Will use rainbow now in Van. Will use fire hoses but not guns unless necessary.

*1914* VP 9 July /Unbridgeable Differences Between East and West/ p.1 London times supports B.C. claims that there are unbridgeable differences between East and West.

*1914* TF /KM Test Cases/ apr-- p.62 Mushi S. was the test case. He was a farmer. June 28 Board of Inquiry rules for deportation. June 28, assasination of Arch Duke Ferdinand. A water crisis on ship. p.68 Gurdit talks immigration people into letting 5 Sikhs come ashore.

*1914* LET n.d. /Rughanath S. to Immigration Agent/ HH-15 a. No food on board. b. Men getting sick. c. He is a member of the Indian Army.

*1914* HHS Vol.1 /KM/ HH-14 137-S81 137-14 Pictures of KM (5).

*1914* TF /Malcolm Reid , Biography/ apr-- p.21 Insecure, Scot, coal miner's son, joined Immigration in 1911. p.22 H.S. Munro, is a Medical doctor. Fred Taylor participated. 4 children and 2 women on board.

*1914* 1 June /Hindustanee Vol.1 #5/ feb11 Good pictures of KM.

*1914* VP 22 July /More good Pictures of KM/ p.1 jan25

*1914* 25 July /Saturday Sunset/ jan25 Big pictures of KM on page 16.

*1914* Sun 8 June /Cartoon, KM (Oriental labour) vs. white labour/ jan25

*1914* TF /KM/ apr-- p.39 On second trip ashore Dr. S. sees H.H. Stevens. p.40 Gurdit rules ship. p.41 Dr. S. argues most passengers are from HK and Shanghai, and were working as police or watchmen. p.41

*1914* TF /KM/ apr-- p.86 Malcolm Reid was trapped on board. There was neither food nor water on board.

*1914* VP 2 June /Cartoon of KM in Harbour/ jan25

*1914* VP 26 May /Pictures of Gurdit et. al./ jan25 Another picture on May 27, (single shot).

*1914* LET 30 January /Report of D.S. Burjor to Hop, 20pp./ feb-4 He is official interpreter for Immigration US. Often they have been refused entry re: money, when they indeed had the money.

*1914* LET 25 August /H.E. Pandran ,Berkeley, (spy) to Hop/ feb-5 Local H. anarchists are % German % .

*1914* MAJ /R.B. Bose/ Teamed up with Barakatulla and others from Ghadar, including V.G. Pingley.

*1914* VP 27 October /Details re: An Indian Report of Oct.1/ p.10

*1914* VP 9 September /Viceroy of India/ p.1 Viceroy of India wants dominions to agree to an H. Immigration system like the Japanese one.

*1914* VP 6 February /Editorial from Rev. K.Grant/ p.6 We can't discriminate against H. immigration. Rather, delegate areas unsuitable for whites where they might settle.

*1914* VP 6 February /H. in Manila protest immigration order/ p.2

*1914* 10 January /Declaration #2, another meeting/ HH-11 Chajoo Ram has a store on Pender Alley.

*1914* MAJ /Bhagwan S. and M. Barakatulla/ p.397 Recalled from Japan, May 1914, by Ghadar, when Har Dayal fled. Barakatulla was from Bhopal. 1909: Professsor at Tokyo U. Had a paper suppressed in 1912. 1914 dismissed from U.

*1914* Mu /Bhagwan S./ p.326 apr-- Deported about May 1914. Includes the speech of Bhagwan S.

*1914* TF /November 1913, and Bela S./ p.151 apr-- Bela beaten unconscious.

*1914* Ma /KM, May/ p. 64-5 apr-- Seth Hussain Rahim still active. Sundar S. visited Ottawa re: KM.

*1914* Ma /Tarak Nath Das, Bhagwan S./ p.30-1 apr-- Was in San F. and distributed a bomb manual (from Spellman). Also went to China and Japan. Bhagwan S. Gyani active in Shanghai.

*1914* AB /Bhagwan S./ p.89 apr-- October 21, left San F. to go to East re: arms to India.

*1914* AB /Bhagwan S./ p.62 apr-- Arrived in San F. May 22, from East Asia.

*1914* LET 18 July /KM Passengers to Gov. Gen./ feb11 See how serious their situation. July 19, Attacked last night. Must have provisions.

*1914* VP 28 December /Man killed by bomb/ feb-6 A man was killed by a bomb he threw at Swami Trigunatita at the H. temple in San F.

*1914* LET 18 December /M. Reid to Cory/ feb-6 Possible Lajput Rai is in Vic. under an assumed name.

*1914* Sun 21 November /Rajmal Sentenced to Death: Feb.6, 1915/ feb-6

*1914* Sun 17 November /Rajmal S. charged with death of Sibou S./ feb-6

*1914* LET 4 November /Harcourt to Gov. Gen./ feb-6 Perhaps a returned India Army type in B.C. could fill Hop's role as immigration officer. Other work should be separate from now on.

*1914* LET 19 October /Hop to Cory/ feb-6 List re: recent removals to India.

*1914* LET 26 October /J. Pope to Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-6 M. Reid is coming to Ottawa with report on Hop's death.

*1914* 21 October /Hop's Death/ feb-6 Secret: Communicated to Gov. Gen. and Harcourt the same day. (Cory to Gov. Gen. Secretary) Harcourt to Gov. Gen. Oct.28, praises the late Hop. Crew gives praise and support to family.

*1914* 14 October /Last Hop communication (?) to Wallinger/ feb-6 Noting his (W's) change of address.

*1914* 29 and 30 June /In the Court of Appeal, Holden at Victoria/ feb-5 In the matter of the immigration assistant and Munshi S. 110pp. Did not include judgement.

*1914* LET 1 August /Hop, Van. to Cory/ feb-5 Newspaper called Shamshere Khalsa is being published in Gurmuckli in Stockton. (Copy in the files).

*1914* LET 3 August /Hop to Scott/ feb-5 Bhagwan is in California.

*1914* 12 August /Hop's Report/ feb-5 When in Portland, noted that Yugantar Ackam is having many H. leave from San F. to India. Hop has been instructed to go to San F. and check.

*1914* LET 25 August /Cory to Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-5 Of the 73 is San F. read to leave, all withdrew re: Japan-German situation. Hop is in San. F.

*1914* LET 28 August /Hop to Cory/ feb-5 Returned to Van. from San F. 100 more ready to return to India. Meetings held, about $1500 collected. Bhagwan, Barakatullah, Harnorm, Ran Chand, G.B. Lal, Wariari S., all active.

*1914* MAJ /Ghadar Returns/ p.447 About 3000+. 400 jailed, 2500 retreated to villages.

*1914* /M. Hal 1977/ p.76 Ingress Ordinance of Sept.5, 1914.

*1914* LET November /Pope to Gov. Gen./ feb-6 Hop's widow will get only 2 months' salary. His final Cdn salary was $1800.

*1914* TF /Hernan S./ p.146 apr-- After gun smuggling arrest was again deported to HK.

*1914* VP 12 August /Sikhs want to Enlist/ p.2 Local Sikhs wish to enlist. Aug.29: Indians are on their way from India to fight in Europe.

*1914* Mu /Reason for Murders?/ p.351 apr-- Claims that the revolutionaries had a large quantity of military ammunition, and wanted to keep it secret.

*1914* LET 7 November /Scott to Cory/ jan-9 Noted could telegram to Gov. Gen. for a replacement for Hop. Notes a "guy there" ascertained to Hop is available. Suggests Hop dead because of his "dual character" and that he does not want one person to do it.

*1914* VP 14 November /feb-6 H. Rahim committed to treat as evidence that he suggested Hop be killed.

*1914* 21 November /R. Aymal to be hung for muder of another H. in New Westminster/ jan25

*1914* LET 28 July /Hop to Cory/ feb-5 Local Sikhs are getting Khalsa Alihbar published in Lyallpore, Punjab, which is like Ghadar.

*1914* LET 4 July /Hop to Wallinger/ feb-5 Received information that another ship with hundreds coming from Calcutta.

*1914* VP 6 May /Das Becomes an American Citizen/ feb-5 Tarak Nath Das becomes an American Citizen in san F. Das is fourth to get citizenship. By precendent is a Caucasian.

*1914* LET 30 May /Gov. Gen. to Harcourt/ feb-5 Secret: Hop is spread so thin that more organisation is necessary. Besides, if somthing happened to him, everything would be chaos. Therefore Hop and the Indian Office should get together. Hop costs of investigation have been heavy, $1100 in San F. and $350 in N.Y. Afraid of Commons response. Perhaps Hop should be and Indian Gov. employee full-time?

*1914* S.F. Examiner 31 March /B.C. H. have raised $800 for Har Dayal Defence/ feb-5 Note, Dayal used an early pamphlet by Sec. State Bryan as comparison.

*1914* S.F. Chronicle 3 April /Cartoon/ feb-5 Cartoon "Another Sacrificial Offering" showing US handing Har Dayal over to a smiling Britain, into a sack labelled "British Jurisdiction".

*1914* LET 3 April /Hop to Wallinger/ feb-5 Threats to gov. H. So suggests protection.

*1914* 1 April /Hindustanee Vol.1 #4/ feb-5 Match scheduled between Dalbagh S. and Pat Connelly, Champ of Gr. Britain.

*1914* LET 30 March /Cory to Hop/ feb-4 In progress: Letter received in Delhi with U. of Calif. paper. Urges mass slaughter of Europeans.

*1914* LET 23 March /Hop to Cory/ feb-4 Ghadar is mailing information to Bhagwan's c/o Mahommed Barakatulla, Tokyo.

*1914* /Picture of Harbant Singh Sandu/ feb-4 For 6 months in 1913, he was president of KDS in Victoria.

*1914* LET 9 March /Hop to Cory/ feb-4 In Stockton the KDS and the Yugantar Ashram got into a conflict on who controlled funds collection at meeting.

*1914* LET 11 March /Hop to Wallinger/ feb-4 Harnam S., Van. is in Wallinger's files.

*1914* LET 19 february /Hop, San F. to Cory/ feb-4 Har Dayal in work had met Bryan, Sec. State and Wilson, Sec. of Labour.

*1914* /2 Pictures of Kartar Singh of Ghadar/ feb-4

*1914* LET 25 August /Wallinger to Hop/ jan23 Is encouraged at Hop giving gov. of Cda. and Gov. of India secret circular. There must be transmitted by hand through Sir D. McBride.

*1914* /Photos including Kartar Singh, of Ghadar. Where is KS?/ feb-4

*1914* News-Advertiser 23 January /Lord MacKenzie, Viceroy, Receives Delegation from Van./ feb-4 Promises support but notes strong Cdn. feeling against change.

*1914* LET 12 January /Hop to Wallinger/ feb-4 Requests information on ram Chand.

*1914* LET 7 January /Hop, San F. to Cory/ feb-4 A survey of sports stores shows H. Students have bought 16 Winchesters and 20 revolvers. A J. bought each gun for the H. Har Dayal et. al very interested in the Mexican Revolution.

*1914* G21 Vol.10(A) /Pictures of Ghadar Headquarters on Hill St. and printing establishment in Mission district/ feb-4

*1914* /Extensive Translations of Ghadar/ feb-4

*1914* 536999 /Part 2 and 3 clippings/ jan25

*1914* News-Advertiser 12 March /Two H. Murdered/ jan25 Brynh S. and Raman S. murdered at Bull River (near Cranbrook). Sabin S. arrested.

*1914* New Westminster Times 6 January /The Hindi's Pastime/ jan25 "It was a great day for the Indian mind when the British court first burst upon the native's gaze with all its possibilities and the Hindu has worked those possiblities ever since. with a judge, a couple of lawyers and a jury to sit on his case, what more could he desire in the form of recreation and gratified vanity combined? With witnesses to swear that black was pale green in his case and other witnesses to appear against him, it was ismple heavenly to sit and hear his name rolled through the halls of justice...With the same idea in his head the Hindu has emigrated to Canada and the result is that the courts of B.C. today are clogged with cases."

*1914* /List of Members of the Hindustanee Assoc. of America, 1914-15/ jan23 Secret: property of Gov. of India. List of 198 names with biography. Many are Bengali, most are not Sikh, (no more than 10).

*1914* LET 4 November /Sec. State of Colonies to Gov. General/ jan23 Secret telegram: "Suggests Cda. hire an ex-Indian Army man in B.C. Political and immigration work should be kept separate.

*1914* LET 2 December /? to Blair, memo/ jan-9 Notes existence of Hindustan-Ghadar in San F.

*1914* LET 16 October /Scott to Cory/ jan-9 In reply to Sec. State for Colonies question, not many H. returning from Cda.

*1914* LET August /W.C. Hopkinson to Cory/ jan-9 Has resigned (see letter file 10900/376) from US Immigration Authorities?

*1914* 10 August /Memo: No names/ jan-9 Van. instructed to discourage emigration of East Indians during the war.

*1914* LET 25 July /E.B. Robertson, Asst. Super. of Immigration to Hon. C.J. Doherty/ jan-9 Suggests a new O. in C. such that all Astiatics not under treaty or special statute would be banned.

*1914* LET 26 February /Scott to C.J. Davidson British Consulate General, Yokohama/ jan-8 Relates PC 23 and 24 notes: "Hookworm" problem.

*1914* 14 May News-Advertiser /H. Cdn. Give Evidence at Assizes/ jan-9 Barima attacked by 2 Sikhs. No beard "OK in Canada". Claim by defense council that he could give evidence--disallowed.

*1914* LET 17 April /L. Harcourt to Gov. Gen. Connought/ jan-9 Acknowledges receipt of extinction of O. in C. re: artisans and laborers entering B.C. (Cheer). <100>

*1914* LET 14 April /W. Langley Under Sec. of State, Colonial Ofc. to Foreign Ofc./ jan-9 Instructed Tokyo to obey Cdn. dictates. Sir E. Grey to Sir C. Green, (Tokyo) let then come to Cda. Will be cleared there.

*1914* 5 March /"Truth Teller" to W.J. Roche, Minister of Interior/ jan-8 Hop and Reid are on the take.

*1914* /Hopkinson Information/ To Cdn. Gov. to Foreign Ofc. to India Ofc. to India.

*1914* /Ghadar #14 Translations, n.d./ HH-13 Notes many incidents in India.

*1914* /Ghadar #10-13 Translations/ HH-9 Jan.6, 1914 India gov. is a parasite. Does nothing. Jan. 13, 1914 Similar, plus conditions of laborers in India. Mohanadas and H. should come together.

*1914* 5 January /Translation of Sansar/ HH-8 Article: "India the Gold Mine" refers to "bastards like Stevens".

*1914* /Ghadar Translations 29pp/ HH-6 Nos. 9,5,6,7,and 8. Russians are ready for revolution, "once people begin to see that it is successful, all take up arms to help". p.6 French revolution discussed. Mutinous feelings in South Africa. Ireland and India are similar. p.7 "Why was Bhagwan S. deported from Canada. Bhagwan did not know English. Therefore his sedition was revealed by a H. These fellows should be fixed in Canad.

*1914* March /Hindustanee Vol.1 #3:9/ East Indian Moslem League formed by Mohammed Akbar.

*1914* Mu /Harnam Kaur, w of Bhag/ p.390 apr-- Died in February of 1914.

*1914* Mu /Kartar S./ p.214 apr-- Published "Theosophical News" in Toronto.

*1914* TF /Ghadar/ p.78-9 apr-- Claims M. Gandhi and B.G. Tilak attacked Ghadar. Bhag was a center Ghadinter. A plan devised to overpower guards and release KM passengers.

*1914* /Ghadar, #16 (in Urdu)/ feb-5 Include letter by Ajit Singh July 28, 1914.

*1914* LET 3 June /Hop to Wallinger/ feb-5 Sansar has gone out of business. Thisis because Sundar S. published an article attacking Bhagwan S. H's promptly denied subscriptions, etc.

*1914* 1 March /Hindustanee Vol.1 #3/ p.1-4 feb-4 Seath of wife of Bhagwan S., at 28, after birth of second child. she was cremated. Pictures included. Several supportive copies of articles by whites. Rajah S. claims Khalsa College sould be run by Sikhs. Piece by T.N.Das on Har Dayal visit to Washington.

*1914* /Extracts from Ghadar, #14/ feb-4

*1914* 5 January /Sansar, in Translation/ feb-4 Much more harsh than previously.

*1914* /Extracts from Ghadar #9/ feb-4 H. and Mohammedans should be one. Think of '57 when all worked together. Noth live under the same conditions. Don't talk: act.

*1914* /Ghadar in Translation #10-13/ feb-4 Gov. of India workers are parasitical and unproductive. Etc. etc.

*1914* /Kishen Kuar, KM/ Wife, Sandar S., Amritsar; Phanja S., son; duaghter aged one.

*1914* LET 11 August /Hop to Cory/ jan23 Spies up and down coast, see great danger of local H. fomenting revolt in India.

*1914* RS /Bhagwan S./ p.13 apr-- Organised Ghadar in HK.

*1914* Mu /Medical Charges in Van./ p.334 apr-- Director of Hospital Board bills H. $7000 for 1907-14. Reported in Sun, June 19, 1914.

*1914* VP 21 July /Pictures of Hopkinson, KM/ p.1 Climax of situation. All rooftops filled with spectators. Rainbow in power. A 12:00 ultimatim given. Bhagwan S. has returned to US and recently was in communication with locals at Sumas.

*1914* LET 17 November /All big types at Queen's U. to Gov. Gen./ jan-9 Let H. students in.

*1914* LET 19 October /Reid to Scott/ jan-9 Notes inauguration of Osaka Shoen Kaisha liner. Mexico Maru goes to Bombay, China, Japan to Vancouver.

*1914* LET 22 June /Borden to Gov. Gen./ feb-5 Secret: Have considered having P.O. ban mailing of Ghadar. Will check with British gov.

*1914* LET 4 August /Harcourt to Gov. Gen./ feb-5 Secret: Communication from Sec. State for India, would request that Ghadar be banned from the Cdn. mail.

*1914* LET 20 August /Joseph Pope, Under Sec. Ext. Affairs, to Gov. Gen. Sec./ feb-5 Ghadar has been banned from the mails.

*1914* LET 4 March /Sec. State for Colonies to Gov. Gen./ jan-9 Confidential: Includes copy of VIceroy's reply to Sikh deportation from Cda. Waited on VIceroy, See 20, 1913. (a) Petition from Van. KDS Bolwant, Narian, Nand S. Sirha to India. Vicerory replied: $200 will be waived for wife and children. Continuous journey will not be required. He does not like this and will continue to protest.

*1914* 20 August /Nand Singh Sirha prevented from returning to Cda./ feb-5

*1914* /Brown p.143/ $2000 subscribed to Ghadar for revolution by Cdn. and US workers by Dec. 1913.

*1914* VP 19 June /14 Tried in Delhi for Murder/ p.1 14 are tried in Delhi on murder and conspiracy charges, plus violation of explosives act. Leader is rash Behari Bose, not yet caught. They published seditious literature and distributed it in the Punjab. Ghadar was mailed from HK and many points in B.C. Har Dayal has been in constant communication with them.

*1914* LET 2 January /Malcolm Reid to Cory/ feb-4 H. Rahim and United India League have started the "Hindustanee".

*1914* LET 12 January /Reid to Cory/ feb-4 H. Rahim claims to have sent 1000 copies of the Hindustanee to Congress leaders in India.

*1914* April /Indian Agitation in America, CID; Simla/ feb-5 Hundreds of copies of Ghadar go to India every week after circulating in N. America. Few have not read them.

*1914* /Printing press of Ghadar is 1324 Valencia St./ feb-4

*1914* 24 February /Report from Wallinger/ feb-4 Parcel sent to Madame Camci, Paris. Stopped at customs. Within are 1000 Ghdar, each with an envelope and Indian address. Return was 436 Hill St.

*1914* /List of 6 Informers and 3 "friends" of Hop in Vancouver/ feb-4 Includes, Bela, Baboo, Gunga Ram, Thalwe S., Hanen S., Nathu S. About 15 altogether whohave been ostracised by others.

*1914* 1 January /Hindustani Vol.1 #1/ feb-4 Adds: Guru Nanak Mining and Trust still functional. Bhag S. is president; Naranjan S. is secretary, and Harnam is manager. Canada-India Supply and Trust: H. Rahim managing director.

*1914* 1 February /Hindustani Vol.1 #2, 8pp/ feb-4 Includes "F. Engels on Social Production".

*1914* February /Red Ink Ghadar Poster: The Bugle of the the Army of the Mutiny/ feb-4 Get together to stop new US laws. We must return to India and start revolution. "Get on a boat and go to your country and prepare some men to fight for the mutiny". Come to Feb.5th meeting in Stockton and pledge you will go to India.

*1914* 23 February /Malcolm Reid to Cory/ feb-4 Locals are still in touch with Bhagwan S. who is in Yokohama. Money has been sent for his passage to Mexico. He will then go to San F. and team up with Har Dayal.

*1914* 12 March /Picture of Bhagwan S. G21 (No.332 10b), next to letter/ feb-4

*1914* LET 2 February /W.C. Hampton, San F., to Cory/ feb-4 Code telegram: Har Dayal and S.K. Bose left for Washington D.C. re: pending anti-H. emigration legislation. Local immigration officials have applied for a warrant for Har Dayal, re: being an anarchist.

*1914* San F. Chronicle 26 March /Har Dayal Arrested/ feb-4 March 27 appears with pictures.

*1914* VP 26 March /Har Dayal ordered deported from San F./ p.1

*1914* LET 8 MAy /Hop, N.Y. to Cory/ feb-5 Har Dayal is in Switzerland.

*1914* January /Yugantar Ashram/ Mar. 25 Har Dayal arrested. April fled to Switzerland.

*1914* LET 27 February /Hop to Cory/ feb-4 On 24th local immigration authorities lad got a warrant for Har Dayal's arrest.

*1914* LET 30 April /Hop, N.Y. to Cory / feb-5 Visited A. Camminetti, US Commissioner of Immigration.

*1914* VP 11 February /Subhindra Bose, Iowa State U. and Bishen S. visit British Ambassador in Wash. D.C./ p.1 Re: possible restrictions of British Indian immigration. Ambassador claims it si a complex issue.

*1914* VP 14 February /Commissioner Caminetti declares all Asians should be kept out of US/ p.1

*1914* VP 20 February /Caminetti speaks out against H./ p.3 The government has prohibited him from speaking about Japanese.

*1914* San F. Examiner 31 March /Claim $800 sent from B.C. Sikhs to support Har Dayal's defense/ p.3

*1914* 7 January /920 recinded: New Order from the Courts/ jan-8 Native or naturalized citizens. 926 recinded. Fixed rate at $200. New 920 = P.C. 23. New 926 = P.C. 24.

*1914* LET Gov. of India, Dept. of Trade and Commerce to L. Crew, Sec. State for India/ jan-8 Wish wives and children admitted. L. Harcourt to Connought, Dec. 25, 1913: Do it. Scott to Cory, May 5 1914: No. Privy Council to W.J. Roche, Feb.23, 1914: NO.

*1914* ELT 4 February /Sec. State for Colonies to Gov. Gen./ jan-8 Confidential: Re: wives and children.

*1914* LET 21 January /Hop to Cory , question to Oliver/ jan-8 1911- 14; 1912- 5; 1913- 88 H. allowed into country.

*1914* LET 8 April /GOv. HK to L. Harcourt/ feb11 1. Most passengers came to HK in past 2 years, with the view togoing to US as watchmen. 2. KM chartered for $66,000 for 6 months. Gurdit S., Gudwara, Singapore n.d.: Announcement of timetable etc. Gov. knew Gurdit was in Selangor in 1899 and 1900 and was "well off". Spoke Malay. Made money in rubber and railway contracts. Expressed no political views.

*1914* LET 30 March /Gov.HK to Gov. Gen./ feb11 150 H. chartered a steamer here. April 6: cannot detain KM further.

*1914* MI /Komagatu Maru/ apr-- p.77 Gurdit renamed it the Guru Nanak Jahaz.

*1914* TF March /Gurdit S.,/ p.12-13 apr-- Gurdit S. had a contractor's office in Singapore. Was 55 years old. Balwant= son. Daljit= secretary. Born in Amritsar. Educated. Was a builder and railway contractor, bookstore owner, pawnbroker.

*1914* SS /Gurdit S/ p.22-24 apr-- Village= Sarhali. Raised $22,000 for cost of ship.

*1914* /Mittal 1977/ p.77 Gurdit Singh of Sarhali village, Amritsar.

*1914* TF 24 MArch /Gurdit Singh/ p.14-17 apr-- Charged with illegal sale of tickets in HK. HK police wanted to stop KM. Deluged locals regarding ability to get into Cda. Cost: $100 per person: 165 from HK, 111 from Shanghai; 86 from Moji; 14 from Yokohama.

*1914* LET 1 May /British Embassy, Tokyo, to Gov. Gen/ feb11 KM stuck in Moji, lacking money for coal.

*1914* VP 16 April /First Report of KM to Leave Apr. 14 from Shanghai/ p.1 To arrive in Van. with 400 H. Gurdit S. has chartered a boat.

*1914* VP 17 April /Report from London/ p.1 India office won't talk about KM. H.H. Stevens asks government about it in Parliament. Notes that : To date the order in Council barring laborers and artisans has not been renewed. It will lapse on Mar.31. Apr. 18, p.1: Malcolm Reid says that they will not be allowed to enter. The continuous journey clause has been reestablished and this is backed up by the $200 restriction and the ban on laborers and artisans.

*1914* Ma /Gurdit S., Bhagwan S.G./ p.62-3 apr-- From Amritsar to Singapore in 1899. Visited HK in 1914. Chartered KM in April 1914. Bhagwan S. Gyanni visited KM in Yokohama.

*1914* MU /KM/ apr-- HK: 165 passengers. Shanghai 111. Moji 86. Yokohama 14.

*1914* 6 May /Placard from Van. Temple Stolen by Mr. Reid's H./ feb11 Praise for G.S. gives sympathy line. Harman S. is on the boat.

*1914* VP 22 May /KM arrives in Victoria/ p.1 Did not have a bill of health from the last port, Moji. H. surpoised that the laws on labour and artisans is still in effect. Thought that the only trouble would be continuous journey. 2 women and 3 children on board.

*1914* TF /KM Arrives in Vancouver, May 23/ p.19 apr--

*1914* VP 23 May /Pictures of KM in Vic. Pictures of launch with H. who tried to get to the KM. 22 are returnees. A number of the people on board were fluent English speakers.

*1914* VP 26 May /Classic picture of Gurdit S. and son on KM/ p.1 May 27, p.1, single picture of Gurdit s. May 28, p.1 Pictures of KM broadside. H. shore committee is willing to put up bail for all 376 on KM.

*1914* Saturday Sunset 30 May /A Poem "Gurdit Singh" by Rudyard Kipling/ jan25

*1914* VP 2 June /Completely scurrilous cartoon of KM/ feb11

*1914* Sun 1 June /H. Pledge Money/ feb11 600 H. in Dominion Hall pledge $100,000. Hop to Cory same day: H. Rahim was chairman. Balwant S. was principal speaker. One pledged $2000, another his property worth $6000.

*1914* TF /KM/ p.32-33 apr-- Temple committee with Bhag, Balwant, Hoosain Rahim. Bhag and Rahim are Ghadarites. June 3, 1914, 600 H. pledge $5000 cash and $50,000 pledges. Largest: $2000, next $1000.

*1914* LET 10 June /Hop to Cory/ feb11 On 6th went on board. One passenger removed recently has died in hospital.

*1914* TF /KM/ p.34-38 apr-- Gurdit S. wants immigrants landed while decision made. Scott says, no. June 4. Gurdit S. sneds messages to Gov. Gen. Ship's doctor= Raghunath S. has Cdn. domicile. June 5-6. TF unsure whther starvation was real or not. While onshore Bela S. contacts Raghunath who tell him to get lost.

*1914* LET 9 June /K.D. Shartri, Pan-Pacific Expo, Chicago, Indian Exhibit to Gurdit Singh/ feb11 Letter of support.

*1914* VP 20 June /Fear Another Ship Coming/ p.1 Bird has and order forcing immigration officials into court. Paper in apprehensive that the law will be found insufficient. Side note: Bela, Baboo and Ganga Ram were suspected as informers on the community.

*1914* TF /KM Third Week/ p.45-46 apr-- Bhag, Hoosain Rahim, join with Gardiner Johnson a local shipping agent. June 21, 1914, Dominion Hall meeting. H.M. Fitzgerald, Socialist Party, addressed. 800 H. attended.

*1914* 21 June /Minutes of Meeting, Dominion Hall/ HH-16 Chair: H. Rahim. Givre "working class" orientation. Extensive sympathy by Mr. Bird. Mr. Fitzgerald "you were at first brought here by the bosses, as more subservient than the 'white wage slave'" Better to go back to India and revolt "fight capital". On June 23 another anti- meeting was held. Mayor T.S. Baxter was chair.

*1914* LET 23 June /Harcourt to Gov. Gen./ feb11 Avoid use of force, if at all possible re: Punjab reaction.

*1914* VP 25 June /Stevens has plans to shanghai H. onto the E. of India/ p.1

*1914* LET 25 June /KM passenger send plea to Gov. Gen. for water/ feb11

*1914* VP 23 June /H. Rahim, Bhag and Balwant try to approach KM in Launch, unsuccessfully/ p.1

*1914* 9 July /Meeting of KM passengers with Reid, and Hop/ HH-17 5 have taken over from Gurdit and want food and water. 2 women and 5 children on board.

*1914* LET 8 July /G.S. to Gov. Gen./ feb11 Return would badly affect native troops. Suggest giving homestead land in Cda. Passnegers to Gov. Gen. same date, Want land in Alberta.

*1914* VP 14 July /400 H. Sought to return to India/ p.1 400 H. are being sought to return to India. Last week H. tried to buy 25 revolvers in Victoria. Golden is a hotbed of sedition. 6 of them are in Van. while another 15 have gone east to meet S.S. Behari Lal Varma is negotiating to get a ship from Bombay through the Suez to Halifax.

*1914* VP 29 June /Test Case Re: KM/ p.1 High-Court, 5 judges, hear test case of KM. June 30, trial continues. Jule 5, p.1, lose case. Police may be asked to board the ship. July 6, Gurdit S. agrees to go. (Pictures) July 8, p.6 Editorial agreees that Gurdit was a worthy foe. Not a question of prejudice.

*1914* LET 17 July /Gov. Gen. to Colonial Sec./feb11 Will provision KM up to $4000.

*1914* TF /KM/ p.94-6 apr-- Sir Charles H. Tupper to Borden, got Immigration to give money for food. On July 13, an attempt with two boats to bring passengers on chore.

*1914* /The Second Echo of the Ghadar/ HH-19 On KM and the attack on the ship Hop mentioned.

*1914* TF /The Battle of Burrard Inlet/ p.105-12 apr-- 125 constables and 35 "specials" on Sea Lion. All armed, specials with rifles. Sea Lion deck is 15 ft. lower than KM. Police board with grappling hooks then a fire hose. Punjabi reposnse very furious. Attackers panic and almost capsize the boat. Line of P.'s from coal bunkers to deck. 30 injured.

*1914* LET 18 July /H.H. Stevens to Borden/ feb11 Due to failed attack on KM, suggest use of Rainbow.

*1914* LET 19 July /Borden to J.D. Hazen/ feb11 No confidence in Rainbow but will try.

*1914* LET 19 July /Borden to Martin Burrell/ feb11 Sends him to Van.

*1914* VP 20 July /Sea Lion Attempt Yesterday/ p.1 Rainbow will be brought to deal with KM. Another article: deatiled story of battle claims almost all of them had been Sepoys. <200>

*1914* 20 July /Rainbow Sailed 10pm from Victoria/ feb11

*1914* TF /KM, Rainbow, July 21/ p.123-4, 129-30, 135 apr-- Stevens had the idea. Ottawa Citizen roasted the Gov. on handling of KM. In addition, there were about 200 soldiers called out. Mayor Baxter had called out the militia. Commander Hose's plan was to board the KM with fixed bayonets. Ghdarites try to use women to smuggle arms to KM.

*1914* /After attack on KM, the committee was still in control/ HH-18

*1914* TF /KM/ p.119-123 apr-- Agriculture MInister Martin Burrell sent by Borden to Van. July 19th. Gurdit agrees to sell out his shipmates. Scott agrees to shanghai to CPR ship.

*1914* TF 22 June /KM/ p.49, 56 apr-- Mayor T.S. Baxter, H.H. Stevens, Alderman F. Woodside, ex-MP C.R. Smith address gathering. 2000 people attend. Reid and Stevens suggest a shanghai of passengers--send to E. of India. Scott rejects.

*1914* LET 27 July /Hop to Cory/ feb-5 Bhag, Balwant, Harnam, Mewa left Van. on B.C. E. Railway to Huntingdon B.C. on 17th. Then entered Sumas Wash. Later Mewa returned. Caught at border with a .32 and 400 rounds. Was found that 5 H. bought these and 3 automatics in Sumas.

*1914* TF /Mewa and Bhag, Etc./ apr-- Bhag, Balwant and Harnam S. caught in Sumas. Mewa caught at border check point. Was 34. Harnam has been deported in 1913. Ran a Vic. grocery and Van. mining firm.

*1914* /Statement of Mewa S./ feb-5 Gives accurate account of their going to Sumas, discussion with Das, purchase of guns. "As far as I am aware and from what I could understand it was the intention of these people to try and convey these weapons to the KM." If this gets out he is afraid for his life. He was never in "full confidence of these leaders" it was by accident that he was along. Sikh Temple committee was paying his fine. This testimony gotten by Hopkinson.

*1914* TF /Mewa, Bhag, Balwant/ p.146-7 apr-- Hop and Bela tried to get Mewa toimplicate Bhag and Balwant re: eventual deportation and about hate feeling.,

*1914* LET 24 July /Robertson to Cote/ jan-9 Balwant, Bhag and Harnam and Das (US citizen) 1. crossed into US. 2. returned with revolvers and 500 rounds 3. presently held.

*1914* VP 7 August /H. fined for carrying a gun/ feb-5 Mewa fined $50. Further charges pending re: smuggling arms and ammunition.

*1914* LET 10 August /Reid to Scott/ jan20 Telegram: 40 H. leaving to stir up trouble in India. Expenses paid by local H. community. Think should not be allowed to register out. Scott communicates to Cory. Scott to Reid, Aug 10, Don't let them register out!. Milne to Scott, Aug.12: Reverse it, a bad rule. They are Cdn. citizens. Scott to Reid, Aug 19. Don't think they should deny sale of tickets. Milne to Scott, Aug 15, Will not issue RO, reason: danger on J. vessels from German subs.

*1914* LET 19 August /Reid to Scott/ jan20 Telegram: J. ships cancelled. H. booking CPR: 160 attempts to get tickets. Reid to Milne, Aug.21: H. have got tickets through CPR Montreal. You should segregate them and take down all information.

*1914* LET 24 August /Reid to Cory/ feb-5 20 H. left for India on 22nd from Van. and 14 from Vic. Gives names.

*1914* LET 26 August /Reid to Scott/ jan26 Mit S. and Sohan Lal negotiating with CPR. Normall CPR boycotted by H. Reid to Scott, Aug. 27: Those at Vic. refuse to give names. He will not let them sail. Ammunition and arms found.

*1914* LET 21 October /Joseph Pope to Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-6 About 110 H. left via Vic. and Van. so far.

*1914* /O'Dwyer/ p.194-5, 198 Tasu Maru, Oct.28, 1914. 173 Sikhs at Calcutta. All jailed. 100 kept there. Of the 73 let go, 6 hung afterwards. 6 transported for life. Rash Bihan and Bhai Parmenand were central. Also Pingle, (hung).

*1914* 6 November /Pioneer Mail/ jan23 2 companies of Royal Fusiliers, 200 armed police, 1 European and 1 Indian detachment of armed police, 5-600 parawallas to meet."Tosa Maru" at Kidderpore, with 315 returning Sikhs.

*1914* /O'Dwyer/ p.204-7 3200 emigres arrived by March 1915. 200 jailed, 700 confined to villages. 20 hung during the special tribunals.

*1914* LET 23 July /Gov. HK to Gov. Gen./ feb11 Have KM go to India without stopping at HK.

*1914* July-September Ma /KM/ p.67-8 apr-- KM passengers told in Yokohama that they were not to be allowed to land at HK or Singapore. Arrived in Budge Budge, Sept.29, 1914. Ingress in India Ordinance.

*1914* August Ma /Returnees to India/ p.75-6 apr-- Aug.29, 1914 "Korea" chartered in San F. 62 on board, by HK 300 on board. India gov. did not allow so many to leave all on one ship. "Tosha Maru" (200 passengers) and Mishiama Maru (160) alnded at Columbo.

*1914* 26 September TF /Budge Budge / p.178, 184 apr-- Septe. 29, Calcutta police commissioner Sir Frederick Halliday come on board with order to go to Punjab. 20 passengers killed, 60 b% killed, 28 passengers escape. Gurdit S. surrenders in 1921. Sentenced to 4 years.

*1914* /G.S. Deol 1966/ p.17 Ghadar sent Sohan S. Bahkna to Yokohama re: sending arms and literature to KM. Left July 21, 1914 with 100 revolvers. Also sent money from san F. to Van. re: propaganda.

*1914* Mu /Harnam S./ p.349 apr-- Not the same one. Was formerly a priest at Millside. Killed.

*1914* VP 1 September /Harnam S. Killed/ p.1 Harnam S., a "Former Priest" found with throat cut. Was a friend of Bela and Baboo S. All three has been falsely charged by many local H. Was formerly a priest at Millside, but resigned due to liquor problems. Was living with Baboo S. Sept. 4, p.2: Arjan S. shot in neck in Baboo's house. 11 H. were in the house. Ram shot him.

*1914* TF /Harnam S. (spy)/ p.147 apr-- Aug. 17 vanished. Aug. 31 found murdered.

*1914* LET 14 October /M. Reid to P. Peele, Customs/ feb-6 Harnam S. and Arjan S., both dead, did translations for the department.

*1914* VP 21 October /Ram S. Acquitted/ p.10 He had been in jail for 6 weeks. Is elderly, religious. It looked as if the death was accidental. Arjan brought the gun home and it went off when Ram was inspecting it. This would tally with Mewa being mad that Ram got off.

*1914* LET 17 August /Reid to Scott/ jan20 Bela S. and Gwynther to note H. passengers on Chicago Maru. Hop left last Saturday to watch H. leaving from San F.

*1914* LET 22 August /Scott to Mr. Mitchell/ jan23 Mr. Nathan now working on Pacific Coast. Shall secret service pay him?

*1914* /Jensen/ p.75 Feb. 1916, Robert Nathan CID to Cda. to cover spying here.

*1914* 5 September TF /Aryan S. funeral, Shoot-Out at Temple/ p.151-4 apr-- Cremated. Bela appeared. Bhag conducting rites at temple. He was shot from behind by Bela, then shot again. Bhadan S. shot twice. Dalip S., Uthun S. once; Sohal Lal, once; and 4 others. 9 people in all. Bhag and Bhadan died.

*1914* LET 10 September /Hop to Cory/ feb-5 Account of Bela S. attack of Sept.5 at temple. Reid wrote account which puts blame on Bela. He was soon brought to scene, and then to hospital where he recorded Bhadan S. and Bhag S. dying testimony. They claimed: 35-40 attended cremation of Arjan S. Bela was there. At 7:30 a service was held with 45-50 people. 7:35 Bela went in and sat down behind Bhag. 20 minutes later he began shooting. 18 detained as witnesses. Bela's act seemed unbalanced. Ram S. who shot Arjan S. was on temple committee.

*1914* AB 5 September /Ingress to India Ordinance/ p.124 apr-- Re: arrivals from East. Each sent to Yokohama where Michael O'Dwyer decided their fate. Out of 8000: 400 in jail, 2500 confined to villages. O'Dwyer gets Defense of India Act passed 19 May 1915.

*1914* VP 10 September /Bela S. Declared Responsible for Deaths/ p.3 Bela S. responsible for deaths of Bhag S. and Badan S. on Sunday Sept 6. Bhag had been shot several times.

*1914* V' World 10 September /100 H. at Bela's inquest/ feb-5

*1914* LET 24 September /Hop to -----/ jan23 Gurdit S. and Dalip trial Victoria 24 Sept. Gurdit's pillow had 350 round of ammunition. Gurdit got 4 years. Dalip got 2 years. Implicates Mit S. Hari S. Granathi at Vic. temple.

*1914* LET 16 September /Hop to Cory, Van./ jan25 With city police raided Harnam S. home. Got information re: bombs etc., also a long letter to Harnam. (in file)

*1914* LET 14 October /Scott to Hop/ jan-9 Authorizes $25 to Gunja Ram and Baboo S. re: "bomb" investigation. $50 will be charged to "allowance granted by the Indian gov."

*1914* LET 15 Septmber /Hop to Cory/ feb-5 Gurdit S. and Dalip S. arrested, with bomb material. Suspect 3 bombs sent with returnees to India. Harnam S. bought material.

*1914* LET 15 September /Hop to Cory/ feb-5 Mussha S. of Vic. suspected of having at least 2 bombs.

*1914* LET 21 OCtober /H.H. Stevens to R. Borden/ jan-9 Hop shot dead by "Maiwa S." leader and previously caught smuggler of arms. Suggests mass deportations. Already 3 giv. officers dead (?). Must use force. J.D. Reid= Acting Minister of Interior.

*1914* TF /Hopkinson Biography/ p.73 apr-- 1909 first came to B.C.

*1914* TF October /Bela S./ apr-- Bela S. trial slated for Oct.21, 1914.

*1914* TF /Hopkinson, Arjan S., Ram s./ p.148-9 apr-- Worked 12 years on criminal investigation in the Punjab. Baboo confirms he and Harnam were both spies. Aug.20 Arjan "accidently" shot by Ram S. Story doesn't agree with medical evidence. Bela claims ram is a Ghadarite. Ram acquitted.

*1914* VP 23 October /Mewa Indicted/ p.1 Mewa Indicted. On Oct.27, Rahim, Sohan Lal and Kartar S. indicted re: conspiracy in Hop's death.

*1914* Mu /Beating of Thakores, friend of Bela S./ apr-- Sept. 17, 1914.

*1914* SS /The Murders/ apr-- Harnam S. (of Bela's faction) killed Aug. 31. Arjan S. (of Bela's) killed by Ram S.Bhag and Balwant killed by Bela. Bela acquitted Nov.29. Hop killed Oct.21.

*1914* TF /Hopkinson, biography/ p.73 Claimed he was a Sepoy in India volunteer rifles. (impossible?)

*1914* TF /Hopkinson, biography/ p.157-9 apr-- Wife: Constance Frye, 2 children. Making $1800 a year by Oct.1913. Owned 2 houses. Took on a disguise as Narian S. and shack etc. In this way found "Victoria Bomb Factory". (I don't think so).

*1914* TF /Hopkinson biography/ p.72-3 apr-- Was 37, Anglo-Indian (false): British soldier father and Indian mother (false). Raised in Punjab (true). Father killed in 1878 by a seditious Sepoy in India Volunteer Rifles (true). Inspector, Calcutta police, police chief of Lahore (unlikely).

*1914* VP 22 October /Account of killing/ feb-6 Mewa had $385 on him at the time. Ram S., spoken well of in his trial by Hop, was Mewa's enemy. Mewa lived in Cda. for 8 and 1/2 years. Hop was son of British soldier, was born in Yorkshire and taken as an infant to India. Became Indian Volunteer Rifles, then police staff, Calcutta, then police chief, Lahore. Been in Cda. since 1905. Claims he was fired upon in San F. in 1913, bo record of this in files. "World" and "Province" say his father was killed in 1878 during Louis Cavagnari trip to Cabul. News advertisement (Oct.22) says he came to Cda. because of ill health, has pictures. "Sun" has good pictures, Oct.22.

*1914* TF 21 October /Hop's Death, Mewa's trial/ p.161-4 apr--

Mewa goes to court house with 8 companions. Shot Hop 5 times. Mewa surrenders voluntarily. Bela trial postponed. Mewaon trial Oct.30. One lasted 2 hours. Jury deliberated 5 minutes.

*1914* Sun 26 October /Hop's Funeral/ feb-6 Argue plot to kill Reid, and Chief of Police MacLennan. Funeral involved a band of 130 police, 75 firemen, and 3000 others. 2 police have been asasulted by H. since Hop was killed. Province, Oct.26 shows pictures of carrying casket. 2000 people attended. Sowa S. sentenced to 1 year for assault of constable.

*1914* 30 October /Cory to Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-6 Suppose India Office is replacing Hop. They (Cdn.s) originally got Hop from that service.

*1914* LET 22 October /M. Reid to Scott/ feb-6 On Hop's death: Left office 9:40 to go to Grand Jury re:Bela S. Mewa shot him, hit him in the head, shot him 5 more time. Notes Mewa became a person friend of Hopkinson after M's arrest.

*1914* LET 3 October /Hop to Cory/ feb-5 harnam S., detained at Sumas, deported by US on ship with Jowalla S. Ship got to Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, Wagarashi, Manila, HK.

*1914* LET 26 November /Reid to Cory/ jan-9 Massive security around immigration office.

*1914* SS /Mewa's Speech/ apr-- 1915 speech in toto.

*1914* VP 30 October /Mewa S. Trial/ feb-6 Trial lasted 2 hours. Jury deliberated 5 minutes. Mewa to hang Jan.11.

*1914* VP 28 October /Mewa to be tried Friday/ p.1 Oct.30, Mewa tried, sentenced to death. Mewa admitted guilt. He claimed that Hop tried to have him falsely swear that Bela acted in self defense. Only 4 H. at the trial. He was proficient in English though he preferred Punjabi. He was enraged that Bhag Singh's daughter would be without father and mother. Bhag had 2 children. There is not now the respect for the temple that there was prior to Bela's attack. Claims Bela told him to pay off Hop to get off the Sumas charge. Paid $40 to Bela.

*1914* Sun 3 December /Sohan Lal charged with initiating Mewa's act/ feb-6 Is acquitted on Dec. 4th.

*1914* Mu /Sohan Lal/ p.365-6 apr-- Was charged with aiding and abetting Mewa S. So also was H. Rahim. Both were with Mewa when he shot Hop. Sohan claimed Mewa to be very devout, never attended political meetings.

*1914* LET 27 October /M. Reid to Cory/ feb-6 H. Rahim, Balwant, Kartar S. arrested on conspiracy charges re: Hop's murder.

*1914* Sun 24 November /Van. grand jury returns Indictment/ jan25 Indictment returned against Sohan Lal and H. Rahim in attempted murder of Baboo S.

*1914* VP 6 November /Bela's Trial/ feb-6 Nov. 18, in Sun, Bela acquitted.

*1914* TF 4 November /Bela's trial (#2)/ p.166 apr-- A witness, Pertab S. claims Bela acted in self-defense. Acquitted.

*1914* LET 7 December / Scott to Reid/ jan-9 It has been decided that sedition work will be done entirely by Indian authorities-- will post a man on Pacific Coast.

*1914* LET 28 December /M. Reid to Cory/ feb-6 Balwant S. left Dec.26 for India.

*1914* VP 21 October /p.1 Hop killed that morning at the Georgia Street courthouse. Shot 5 times. 8 H. accompanied Mewa S. Yesterday Ram S. had been acquitted on murder charge. Hop has given testimony in favor of Ram who was the enemy of Mewa. No words were spoken by either person. Sundar S. and Sohan Lal were among the 8. Mewa had checks from other H. on him totalling $356. Mewa is 34. He has been in Cda. 8 and 1/2 years. Hop had labelled him as one of the worst H. in the province. Mewa had not worked for many months. Hop was 37. Born in Yorkshire, son of a soldier. Father killed in Sir Louis Cavagneiri trip to Cabul in 1878. Became a member of the India Volunteer Rifles. Police staff of Calcutta and Chief at Lahore (?). came to Cda. 9 years ago and for 6 worked with Immigration.

*1914* LET 26 January /Malcolm Reid to H.H./ HH-12 Sansar will be banned from post. Enclosed copy of Jan 5, 1914.

*1914* LET 19 August /A. Steel, San F. to Hop/ feb-5 Was talking to Bhagwan S. and others in Gurmuckli. Claims revolt in India imminent. Troops wil mutiny and seize arms. Bhagwan would not act like Har Dayal and boradcast his palns. Many H. did not think they could win without the assistance of Japan.

*1914* LET 2 August /Hop to Cory/ jan23 Is in San F. keeping tabs on brewing movements to return to India.

*1914* LET 6 MArch /"Peters" (H.E. Pandian) to Hop/ feb-4 Big meeting at Burada Laundry House, Berkeley. Har Dayal was there. Not yet arrested. "they are planning political activities on a guerilla basis in the mountain areas of north Punjab.

*1914* LET 2 February /Hop to Cory/ feb-4 ram Chand brought in to edit Urdu section of Ghadar. Van. H. tell Har Dayal that Hop is in San F.

*1914* /An Open Letter to the British Public by the Hindusthanees of North America/ 4pp. feb-5 Signed by Balwant, Bhag, Harnam, Sohan Lal, H. Rahim, Surrendra Nath Kam, Nahbi Ram Joshi, V.P. Iyer, T. N. Das. During was British must have support of H. to the colonial people. KM passengers will argue to their army friends not to serve. Want the rights accorded others.

*1914* VP 8 June /Stevens proposes Immigration Act amendment/ p.1 Stevens proposes amendment to act to prevent incidents like KM ever happening again. Another article: Kumar predicts revolt in India. he is in Manila. He went to HK and Singapore to "investigate" and claims that the Sepoys there are ready to revolt.

*1914* VP 25 August /Ghadar Prohibited from entering country/ jan20 Postal authorities are not to allow Hindustanee Ghadar into this country. Victims, Aug. 26: Reid was defeated by local CPR lawyer. The H. sail the Shidzuka Maru.

*1914* /Bhagwan S. and M.M. Barakatulluh arrive in San F./ jan23

*1915* /5 Mills in Fraser Valley bought by about 30 people/ Most soon closed. 1917: Panama Canal boosts B.C. lumber market.

*1915* BSD /Sikhs buy Mills/ During the beginning days of WWI, the prairie market slumped. Sikhs bought at least 7 local mills. 40 joint owners. It picked up, but local lumber was depleted. Opened East Indian Lumber Co., Ladysmith, and Mayo Lumber Co., Duncan.

*1915* Ma /Returnees to India/ p.71 apr-- 3,125 . returned.

*1915* Ma /Number of H. in US/ apr-- About 7000 in California, 1915.

*1915* /Yugantar Circular, n.d.: The Delhi Bomb/ feb10

*1915* /Note: Riots in Singapore about 1915/ feb-7

*1915* LET /Sec. State for Colonies to Gov. Gen., Riverdale/ jan23 H. in Panama and Manila are seditious.

*1915* TF /Mewa hanged, Jan. 11/ apr--

*1915* /G.S. Panmu, 1970/ p.44 Mewa had a wife and son here.

*1915* /K. Grant, 1923/ p.187 In 1915 he visited Mewa S. prior to his execution. Mewa wanted him to dispose of his Indian property in the interests of his family. Mewa broke with his friend San% S. in 1913 for converting.

*1915* Mu /Mewa's hanging/ p.371 apr-- Jan 11,1915, his wife and children and hundreds of Sikhs outside of the New Westminster prison.

*1915* News-Advertiser 14 January /Final words of Mewa S./ feb-6

*1915* VP 11 January /Mewa's Execution/ feb-6 Several hundred waited outside for hours in the rain. Then walked body in a procession from New Westminster to Fraser Mills.

*1915* /Translation of Mewa's Last address, by A.H. Barton, original/ feb-6 Taken from the Khalsa Shancher of Stockton. Mit S. has told him that Stockton will read the last chapter of the Cravath Sohil. The rest is religious.

*1915* /Stockton Khalsa, pictures/ feb-6 Pictures of Mewa, Bhag and others killed, being distributed.

*1915* Ma January /Rangoon Sepoys/ p.81 apr-- 130th Baluchi regiment to revolt. Stopped by British. 200 punished.

*1915* MAJ /Singapore Mutiny/ p.430 British battalion had been sent home. Indian 5th Light Infantry was Muslim. 15 Feb., 1915, sent before leaving for HK. They mutineed. German prisoners refused to help. 2 were hanged, 38 shot. 5th Light Infantry disbanded.

*1915* RS /Balwant S. Granthi/ p.23 apr-- Balwant was leader of Ghadar in Cda. Hanged in Singapore jail.

*1915* TF February /Sohan Patrak, Harnam S., Narayan S./ apr-- From California to Burma, hanged in Rangoon. 15 feb., 5th Light Infantry mutinees in Singapore, 27 executed.

*1915* /Josh 1978/ p.25-7 Balwant S. went to Bankok. Place infested with CID. Balwant arrested with others, put in jail. Handed to British in Singapore. Santokh S., Sohan Lal Pathak and Harnam S. Sahri also active. There was a Singapore revolt. Sohan Lal arrested Aug.14, 1914. Hung Feb.10 1916. Active in KM. Harnam S. arrrested in Burma, Mandalay CC, May 6, 1916. Harnam S. hung with 7 others.

*1915* VP 12 June /Bela sent to jail for assault/ feb-6 Jailed for a year for assault on Lachmen S. Dominion Gov. has provided Bela free transport to India.

*1915* January /Statement by Bela S./ feb-6 Bhagwan was a Hindu Brahmin who became a Sikh. Went to HK. Kicked out of Gudwara role by gov. of HK. Suggests Harnam S. was siezed in temple and murdered.

*1915* VP 19 March /Bela Narrowly Escapes/ p.3 Jagit S. kills Rattan S. and Bela narrowly escapes last night. Bal Mukand and Amor S. also there. Stockton is circulating pictures of Mewa on coast.

*1915* TF 18 March /Jagit S. kills Rattan S./ p.169 apr-- Jagit also wounded another. Sentenced to hang Aug. 4. Later reduced to 6 years because of alcohol. Rattan was a Ghadarite.

*1915* /Lowes, p.41/ Kartar S. claims to be the first ot abandon beard and turban. Not true. Re: Harnam S. etc.

*1915* 7 MArch /Ghadar #19/ feb-6 On traitors in B.C. Kill them. Mar.28 1915, to Canadian H.: Don't be blind, return to India. Eliminate local traitors.

*1915* VP 19 March /Jagit S. Murders/ feb-6 Yesterday: Jagit S. killed Rattan S. a follower of Bela S. Bela narrowly escapes Amor S. wounded in foot. 2 Previous attempts had been made on Bela. Bhal Mukund was also with Beal.

*1915* VP 14 April /Mutab S. killed in Dynamite Explosion/ p.1 with pictures

Mutab S. killed in explosion at his home. House totally wrecked. Deelepa and Pahyan S. seriously hurt. 6-7 others not hurt. Raganath S. (Dr.) has just returned to Asia.

*1915* TF 3 April /Bela S. Assassination Attempt/ p.170-1 apr-- Dynamited house. Mutab S. killed. Deepla and Payhan S. wounded. Bela beats a Sikh to get information. Bela gets 12 months in jail.

*1915* VP 14 April /Mutab S. killed/ feb-6 Mutab S. killed and 2 others wounded in bombing on 13th. Mutab was a friend of Bela's as were the other two. Walaite Ram is in court on charge of pointing a gun at Bela.

*1915* World 18 May /Jagit S. Guilty/ feb-6 Jagit S. found guilty, though pleaded self-defense. Sentence is death on Aug.4, with recommendation of mercy.

*1915* VP 23 July /New Trial/ feb-7 Jagit S. gets new trial--previous judge had told jury to disregard manslaughter possiblity.

*1915* LET 10 August /Bela and Baboo to Scott, written by Reid/ jan-9 (Reid) Bela serving 12 months for assault. Baboo, 12 months for forgery. They got a letter from Kelowna. 25 there. They all get Har Dayal paper from San F. Vilently angry with Baboo and Bela. 2 were escapees, Bowa and Gura from Vic., Nov. 1913. Scott to Mitchell, Aug.17 1915, Notes seditious papers in B.C. Scott to Cory Nov. 1, 1915, Suggests not to arrest Kelowna men in order to keep peace.

*1915* Mu /Prataps S. shoots at Mit S. Pendori in Abbotsford temple/ p.375 apr-- October 1915. Sentenced to 4 years.

*1915* VP 30 January /7 Prosecuted in Punjab, 3 of which are from Cda./ p.1 They derailed a Punjab mail train. Feb.3, 1915, seven KM rioters sentenced to death re: riot at Calcutta and subsequent death of 2 policemen.

*1915* LET 21 January /Harcourt to Gov. Gen/ feb-6 Hop will no be replaced by Indian gov.

*1915* AB /Punjab revolt/ p.125 apr-- 48 of the 81 in Lahore Conspiracy Case were recent arrivals.

*1915* VP 18 February /Spingapore: 800 Sepoys Revolt/ p.1 Feb.20, p.1: Japanese and French soldiers from warships land to quell mutiny at Singapore. Feb.24, p.1: 400 Sepoys killed. 7 German prisoners, too. Killed all their officiers except Colonel. 5th Light Infantry rebelled, were on way to Egypt. Half the Regiment did not revolt. Apr.13, p.1: final toll: 54 killed, 614 arrested.

*1915* LET 24 February /A.C. Ross, Consul Sec. San F. to A Jolliffe/ feb-6 Spies report: Karatr S. Sarlabha in India. Santokh S. also in India.

*1915* Ma February /Singapore Sepoys/ p.81 apr-- 5th Infantry revolts Feb.15, took possession of fort. 700 revolted (Moslem troops) 126 court martialled, 41 transported for life, 27 shot.

*1915* LET 8 February /Gov. Straits Settlement to Gov. Gen./ feb-6 Notes seditious letter from B.C. to Sikh in Malay State Guides.

*1915* Mu /Ragmal S./ p.367 apr-- Sentenced to hand on Feb. 6, 1915, re: Sibou S.

*1915* LET 9 March /Reid to Scott/ jan20 Many have left without RO. 7 "friends" want RO. Can I give them to them? Scott replies: Do it.

*1915* Evening Journal (Van.) 20 March /Duloo Das from San F. gives seditious speech/ jan-9 Das gives speech from temple. He praised Jaghat S., slayer of Rattan S. (friend of Bela) and Mewa S.

*1915* LET 26 April /G.J. Davidson, Vice Consul, Yokohama to Gov. India/ feb-6 Many seditionists in Japan. In Maila they have formed a branch of Ghadar with German aid.

*1915* LET 27 April /Pope to Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-6 Mrs. Hop is now on interior payroll at $1000 per year.

*1915* LET 3 April /J. Pope to Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-6 "Evening Journal" is being published in Van. Article: Slayer of the Immigration Wahabis".

*1915* LET 10 April /Sec. State for Colonies to Gov. Gen./ jan23 No one will be appointed to replace Hop during the war. Requests Cdn. help.

*1915* LET 4 June /Consul Gen. Manila, to Gov. India/ feb-7 Bhagwan S. is there. Has General Consul connections. May Ghadar papers coming through.

*1915* 23 June /A.L. Jolliffe is Immigration Agent in Van./ jan-9

*1915* LET 2 July /Cory to Scott/ jan-9 Do nothing re: H. without ministerial approval especially deportations to India.

*1915* 29 October /Jagit S. spy to HK police/ feb-7 H. E. Pandian lived with Har Dayal and Parmanand (arrested in Lahore Conspiracy). Friend of Pingli. (Sentenced to death in Lahore) in 1913. He has had meeting with Bhagwan. Also in Yokohama: Lachman S., brother of Piara, (sentenced to life in Lahore).

*1915* LET 24 December /Brit. Consul Gen. San F. to Btir. Embassy/ feb-7 Nand S. Sirha visited embassy. Living in Stockton. Wants money to inform on others and spread loyalty.

*1915* Ma /Arms to India/ p.85 apr-- 8000 rifles, 4 m. rounds. Ships Annie Larsen and Maverick chartered, Mar.8. Maverick is coal oil tanker. Ship Henry S. attempts through Bangkok.

*1915* LET 18 December /Brit. Consul in San F. to Viceroy/ feb-7 Re: arms to India in the Maverick, and schooner Annie Larsen. Doesn't believe it likely.

*1915* LET 23 December /Brit. Consul Gen. in San F. to Viceroy/ feb-7 The chief mate of the Maverick has told him that the Maverick and the A. Larsen were smuggling arms. 5 "Persians" on board.

*1915* LET 19 November /Reid to Scott/ jan-9 Notes, officially, 5296 H. between July 1, 1900, and Mar.31 1915. Notes "Special Commissioner on Hindu Affairs, Mr. H. Clogston". Reply: 1911 cnesus: 2347 in Cda.

*1915* MAJ /Siam/ p.432 Bhagwan S. was sent by Ghadar to Japan China and Manila. Others were arrested in August in Bangkok. 4 were caught and convicted in Burma.

*1915* Ma /Ghadar in India/ p.105-20 apr-- Bengali support. Ras Behari Bose involved directly. Lohore: 42 death sentences, 114 life transport, 193 imprisoned 42 acquitted.

*1915* Ma /Tarak Nath Das/ p.58 apr-- Das to Berlin. Berlin sent him to Egypt to sow sedition in Suez area. Other Ghdarites to Shanghai, Bangkok, Siam.

*1915* Ma /Revolutionaries in Japan/ p.97 apr-- Several, including Bhagwan S. and Ras Bihari Bose, T.N. Das.

*1915* MAJ /Das Barakatulla/ p.409 Went to Istanbul and talked with Enver Pasha.

*1915* LET 28 December /Consul Gen. San F. to Brit. Embassy, Wash./ feb-7 Lala Rajput Rai has arrived on 27th. He is in Berkeley and is working quietly for Ghadar. Brought with him $16,000 draft on a Yokohama Bank. Presently detained on Angel Island.

*1915* /Gurdit S. (Part II:18)/ Claims Mewa S. tried earlier to kill Hop and Hop's house, but he failed. Bluffed his way out.

*1915* LET 7 August /J.S. Attwal to Brit. Consul Gen., San F./ feb-6 Lala Rajput Rai is in San F. He is going to Exhibition. Has Ghadar sympathies but afraid that he is being watched and will not publicly associate with them. Has met Ram Chand.

*1915* 27 September /Cdn. Emba% of Friends, Newmarket Ont./ jan-9 Let wives and children in. Scott to Cory, Dec.10, 1915: Think Sundar S. has a hand in this petition.

*1915* /M.N. Bose/ 1915: Japan. 1916: China, arrived in San F. went to N.Y. to stay with L.R. Rai. 1917 arrested.

*1915* /Morse 1935/ Cdn. and Indian troops often adjacent in France. <349 End Box 3>

*1916* LET 18 February /Colonial Sec. to Gov. Gen./ feb-7 Harnam S. arrested in Burma to be tried for waging war against the King. Want information on Harnam's activities to strengthen case. Want someone involved in searach of Harnam's house to go to Burma to confirm it is he.

*1916* LET September /Viceroy to Gov. Gen./ feb-7 Send copy of judgement of special commissioners at the Mandalay Conspiracy trial.

*1916* LET October /2 Confidential Telegrams from Gov. Gen. to Wallinger/ feb-7 Transmitted by Nathan, for file only. One about the Manick Lal scheme which is dangerous because of LRR knowledge. Another: Chakravarti, in N.Y. sends a Chinese to China.

*1916* LET 26 October /Nathan to Gov. Gen/ feb-7 Someone who looks like Bhagwan S. has arrived in N.Y. from Christobal. Going to Germany to spread sedition among German Indian prisoners.

*1916* n.d. /Brit. Consul Gen., San F., to Chief of Police, Victoria/ feb-7 Arms are being smuggled in every form to India. G.D. Kumar in Philippines is active as an intermediary.

*1916* LET 30 January /Reid to Cory/ jan10 Wife and children agitation revived. Clergy saw P. Brewster yesterday. Brewster unsympathetic.

*1916* LET /Brit. Consul Gen. to Brit. Embassy, Wash./ feb-7 V.D. Bagai of Peshawar is working for Peshawar police and wants to work for local consul.

*1916* LET 12 May /A. Carnegie Ross to British/ feb-7 Must have funds to pay Bengai, or he will leave San F.

*1916* 26 May /Police Office, HK to Immigration Agent, Van./ jan20 Bhogovan S. has arrived en route to Van. He has RO, owns 19 acres in New Westminster and 2 lots in South Van.

*1916* LET 18 August /Scott to Michell/ jan10 Notes that Hop has been replaced. Evidently not Clogstom. Probably by M. Reid.

*1916* LET 22 February /Navy Yard, Esquimalt, to Navy Ottawa/ jan-9 Coded information from Chief of Police. Great amount o seditious activity. Arms to Afghanistan shipped Jan.16 in cotton bales, general merchandise. Gurdit Kumar receives (in Van.?) then ships to Philippines then India. Bhagwan is in Japan, buys arms and sends to India. Harnam S. operated from Suva. Suggest seizure of mail to Mit S., Sohan Lal, Sikh temples at Van. and Vic. This referred to all concerned.

*1916* LET 22 February /Reply of Pope to Gov. Gen/ feb-7 Since Hop is dead, who is to send to Burma?

*1916* LET 12 March /Home Dept., Delhi, to Gov. Gen./ feb-7 Secret: Need a witness from Cda. re: Hranam S. trial. Either detective would do.

*1916* LET 6 March /M. Reid to Scott/ feb-7 Does an Intensive search for witnesses re: Harnam S. Cannot find any but one detective. Cory is sending Detective Ezra Carlow (Mar.14).

*1916* LET 16 March /Home Dept. Delhi to Gov. Gen./ feb-7 Witrh their local evidence, it makes Cdn. input unnecessary.

*1916* LET 6 March /Cory to Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-7 Re: Harnam S. case: T.N.Das now in Berlin.

*1916* LET 6 June /A.L. Jolliffe to Cory/ feb-7 Bela S. sailed for Calcutta June 1.

*1916* LET 23 February /feb-7 Letter from Ram Chand deputed Dewa S. to murder judge who acquitted Bela S.

*1916* VP 6 October /Jagit convicted of manslaughter/ feb-7

*1916* LET 24 January /Brit. Consul-General to Brit. Embassy, Wash./ feb-7 More U.D. Bagai: Rosh Behari Bose must leave Japan but can't get to US. Ram Chandra tried to send $300 to Bhagwan in Peking. Bhagwan got $1000 year from Bose. He is in communication with Chinese revolutionaries. Lala R. Rai wrote both in Japan(??) (Young India?).

*1916* LET 11 February /Brit. Consul General to Brit. Embassy, Wash./ feb-7 Lala R. Rai has completed a book called Indian Nationalism. Mr. Shastri had a party for all big Ghadarites.

*1916* LET 25 February /Br. Consul Gen. to Brit.Embassy, Wash./ feb-7 More from Bagai: Ram Chand sees L.R. Rai as being too concernd with "social problems" in India. L.R.Rai is more moderate and wants more done secretly. Stockton Sikhs: Santara S., Bishen S., and Dandar want more input into Ghadar. R. C. did not want it. Rai has asked out of India $5000.

*1916* LET 10 March /Br. Consul Gen. to Brit. Embasssy, Wash./ feb-7 Fresno meeting, 250 people, Mar.5, considerable bad feeling against R. C. expressed, especially by priestly types. The conservatives later met privately suggested L.R. Rai would be a good leader.

*1916* LET 1 March /Br. Consul Gen. to Brit. Embassy, Wash./ feb-7 Another meeting of Feb. 27 in Sacramento. 4-600 attended. Conflict apparent between R.C. and local Gudwara. R.C. maintained control but wants to resign everything but the paper.

*1916* Ma /Ghadar in San F./ p.102-5 apr-- Bhagwan and Ram Chand split.

*1916* LET 10 April /Brit. Consul Gen. to Brit. Embassy, Wash./ feb-7 L.R. Rai is not going to have anything more to do with local revolutionaries. ram Chand says money is not coming so easily. April 19 Letter: Ram Chand and others have split. April 13 Letter: funds very low.

*1916* 1 May /From local papers, fed to them by Ram Chand/ feb-7 300 hung by British for sedition: including-- Kartar S. (at Patna?) was on Ghadar staff. Kanshi Ram, had $1000 with him. Bidwan S. smuggled arms, lookted Brit. treasury. Sohan S., Prethle S.

*1916* LET 10 May /Brit. Consul Gen. to Brit. Embassy, Wash./ feb-7 L.R. Rai and 5 others visited Ghadar Press. Rai and Ram Chand leave Sohan S. in supreme head of party.

*1916* LET 31 October /Nathan to Wallinger/ feb-7 Bhagwan is going to San F. to check on exploits of Ram Chand.

*1916* LET 1 November /Nathan to Wallinger/ feb-7 Information has it that Ajit S. is in Californis. Nov.6 cancel above. But Bhagwan is in Stockton supporting Ram Chand. He has been in communication with Ajit.

*1916* LET 9 December /Brit. Embassy, Ottawa to Consul-Gen. N.Y./ feb-7 Bhagwan S. is in San F. (source: Nathan)

*1916* LET 29 February /Colonial Office to Gov. Gen./ feb-7 Reports of German involvement force sending R. Nathan late of India civil service to Cda. Be there in 3 weeks.

*1916* LET 7 January /Scott to Sir Joseph Pope, Under-Sec. of State for Ext. Affairs, Ottawa/ jan-9 Confidential: Ref. to Indian gov. statement of position on KM. Canada must make a concession: a) should allow wives and children (if under 16 years of age). b) % Indian Gov. documents.

*1916* LET 15 June /Reid to all Border Inspectors/ jan-9 Due to great demand for H. labour, many may try to disguises to get across the border.

*1916* LET 14 June /Gov. Gen. HK, to Gov. Gen./ feb-7 E.W. Jackson has arrived. Gone to India for Cda. India committee. He was sent back to Vancouver.

*1916* LET 24 August /Chief Constable, Toronto to Chief Commissioner of Police, Dept. Justice/ feb-7 C.I. Commission ran by S.S. Jackson's house has been searched.

*1916* LET /Gov. of Trinidad to Gov. Gen/ feb-7 J.E.Dobbs of Cda.-India Committee has arrived in Toronto, He is associated with seditious H.

*1916* LET 30 December /Scott to M. Michell, Queens U./ jan10 April 1911-March 1916: 97 H. entered.

*1916* LET 1 February /Scott to Cory/ jan-9 Plea for admission of wives and children of Kapoor S. Sidoo, Nipising, Ont. Uses as a prefix to introduce wives and children issue as far as the Indian gov. is concerned.

*1916* LET 7 September /Scott to Cory/ jan10 Mad at Reid for memo suggesting harassment of H. at Border crossings-confiscating and holding papers. Reid's reply, Sept. 26 1916, To stop Ghadar and other literature.

*1916* LET 30 November /Scott to Cory/ jan10 Bhagwan S. was in HK and couldn't get to Cda. only because CPR won't let him have a ticket. This is wrong.

*1916* LET 17 January /Scott to Michell/ jan-9 Petition from Ontario WCTU. Sundar S. is behind it. (With Miss H.L. Davies). Suggests re: wives and children, to admit them.

*1916* /Cda.-India Committee will send Mr. E.W. Jackson to India/ jan21 Undated letter, possibly 1920's.

*1916* LET 13 January /Brit. Consul-gen. to Brit. Embassy, Wash./ feb-7 V.D. Bagai went to Stockton meeting. He invited Ram Chand and L.R. Rai to dinner. L.R. Rai suggested an English journal in US. Rai got $2500 from R.B. Bose (possibly the person who threw the bomb at the Viceroy). R. Chand has $8500 in hand.

*1917* /British Consulate at San F., a key/ feb-8 1= V.D. Bengai. 2= Juolla S. 3= J.S. Atwai 4= R. Chandra 5= L.R. Rai 6= Dr. Shastri.

*1917* LET 27 June /Reid to Scott/ jan10 Bhagwan S. admitted.

*1917* /Note: though British Spies:/ feb-8 "Dunlop" and "Henry" and "Nathan" and "George", information was collected for San F. trial.

*1917* LET 18 April /Sir Nathan from Vancouver/ feb-8 Locals claim that Piara Karam S. escaped from Andamans with 17 others. He was sentenced in first Lahore case.

*1917* MAJ /Mandalay/ 20th May, New York Times reported 4 men tried for Burma conspiracy.

*1918* Ma /San F. Trial/ p.166 apr-- Tarak Nath Das gets 22 months, Bhagwan S. gets 18 months.

*1917* Mu /San F. Trial/ p.104 apr-- Charged with violating neutrality. Lasted from Nov.20 to Apr.14, 1918. British heavily involved. 17 German consulate officials among the 105 arrested. Ram S. shot Ram Chand, then shot himself.

*1917* 30 July /San F. Call/ feb-8 Bhagwan is among others indicted in trial.

*1917* 9 April /Man following Ram Chand full-time/ feb-8 Under Nathan's orders, Ram Chand is followed constantly. On Apr. 9 Ram Chand arrested, also Santokh, Sundar and others.

*1917* 9 March /Unsigned note/ feb-8 M.N. Roy is in San F. under name of Martin. From Nathan's secretary in Van.: Chas. A. MArtin arrived June 15 from Yokohama. Now in Palo Alto.

*1917* LET 16 January /Mr. Long to Gov. Gen./ feb-8 On possibility of sending loyal S. gra% to Cda. and US. Reply from Gov. Gen.: Jan.20, things are OK in B.C.- no need.

*1917* LET 18 January /Scott to Reid/ jan10 In code: "Advised by British gov. that leading S. ruling chief suggests to Indian gov. to dispatch to US and your province informal S. n% to combat previous ideas inculcated by Ghadar party. Mission to include reorganising religious leader, with lecturer and religious m%. More ideas. Reid to Scott: OK if religious leader is more powerful than Bhagwan S. There are an estimated 1000-1200 S. in Cda. Scott to Cory: "Sikh" = Maharaja of Patiala. Original British telegram, secret: Mr. Cory to Gov. Gen.: one goal is to split Sikhs from others.

*1917* LET 20 April /Scott to Dr. Roche/ jan10 5 people in Canada-India league, all in Toronto. Sent Ernest Jackson to India, and James Dobbs to Demerara.

*1917* LET /Constant communication between R.P. MacKay (Presbyterian Church of Cda., Sec./ jan10 Re: Hindu wives and children. Contains references to K.J. Grant in Vancouver.

*1917* LET 13 July /W.L. MacRae to Scott/ jan10 Re: OK for Bishan and Hackman S.'s wives to enter. Reports entry for Sohan S.'s wife.

*1918* 30 MArch /MacRae, Victoria/ jan10 Gets wife of Amar S., who works in Victoria Steam Laundry, in.

*1918* LET 9 April /MacRae, Vic. to Scott/ jan10 A few wives admitted has cooled them down. Resolution passed in Temple to exell from KDS any Seditionists. It would help his missionary work if Scott would IOK his requests for wives. One for Bishan S.

*1917* /Imperial War Conference, Extracts of Minutes and papers/ jan10 May 1917, London, pp.159-162. Argues that Sikhs and others make money and they would come in any case, therefore, let them. P.117-120, Sir. R. Borden: public opinion against it, but will consider it. others would

*1917* LET 1 September /Gov.of Nfld. to Gov. Gen./ jan10 From St. Johns, Secret, code: Re: Indian/British recognition treaty. Local opinion would grant British Indian same status as Syrian Christians. Wants the confidential opinion of Cd. on the matter.

*1917* LET 12 November /Minister of Interior, Meighan, to Cory/ jan10 Suggests a new H. order in Council re: wives and children in accord with sub-clauses 3 and 4 of clause 16 fo Memorial of India Office Mar.22, 1917. Reciprocal treaty: if Cda. excudes some, then India can exclude some. Full facilities for tourists, etc.

*1918* Ma /T. N. Das/ p./128 apr-- In San F. allied with Bosheviks organised People's Council of San F.

*1918* /Immigration Stats/ jan11 1904-5:45. 1909-10:10 1914-15:- 05-6:387 10-11:5  15-16:1 06-7:2124 11-12:3  16-17:- 07-8:2623 12-13:5  17-18:- 08-9:6 13-14:88

*1918* 7 December /A.L. Jolliffe is Commissioner of Immigration/ jan11

*1918* August /Imperial War/ jan11 Council passes resolution re: wives and children to dominions.

*1918* World 26 November /D% Steamship Company/ jan11 Steamship company may offer continuous passage, but only freight.

*1918* /Rowlatt, Justice et.al/ p.149 jan23 Sedition Committee report, Calcutta, India. Tosa Maru: of those not jailed (Oct.29, 1914) 6 were later hung. Plan was that they would spread out over the Punjab to sow dissent. p.156: Defense of India act a result of disturbances in Punjab. Over 50 such events. 28 were hung in Lahore conspiracy case. At least 3 Cdn. involved in Bangkok plot to invade India. Mandalay Special Tribunal.

*1918* Sun 30 July /Notes 1918 Imperial War conference/ feb-8 Re: wives and children. Thinks this must be allowed.

*1918* /Sedition Committee Report/ feb10

*1918* LET 15 February /Cory to Sir J. Pope, Ext. Affairs/ jan10 They are going to sit on the treaty for a while.

*1918* LET 30 May /Malcolm Reid to Cory/ feb-8 Delip S. killed recently experimenting with explosives. Gurdit retraced Dec.29, 1917. Though a spy, Gurdit was arrested again re: bomb making. He was sentenced to 5 years.

*1918* LET 24 April /S. Davidson, Yokohama, to Reid/ jan10 Battan S., friend of Harnam S. and been in Yokohama. Natha S. Dowra. Keeps them there. They want to come to Cda.

*1918* 11 May /Suggestions for O. in Council prepared by E. Blake Robertson/ jan 11 1. Wives and children. 2. Equality for non-immigrants. 3. That further immigration be deferred until 18 months after war. 4. That it is different social and economic conditions, not race.

*1918* Reel C-10 281 /Imperial War Conference, 15th Day, July 24/ jan11 Borden absent. Sir S.P. Sinlia reads resolution including sec.3- wives and children (p.195). Special mention of B.C. (p.197) Mr. Rowell for Borden (p.198) Canada accept resolution. Praises Sikhs in was. Carried.

*1918* LET 28 September /H.W. Gwyther, H. Interpreter to Cory/ jan11 Suggests a system of registry in the local district of women.

*1918* 25 November /Memo prepared by Immigration for Council/ jan11 1. Wives and children admitted, subject to a rule of monogamy, and subject to proof of financial support, and subject to a certificate from a deputy commssioner in the district. 2. Continuous passage not relevant for them.

*1918* LET 22 July /F. Blair to Teja S./ jan12 1. Includes copy of Order in Council P.C. 641, and tells them he can't help re: other problem. Note Reid now: Special Immigration officer for Western Cda.

*1918* LET 21 October /Scott to Mr.Crerar, acting minister of Colonies and Immigration/ jan11 Still not resolved. He has approved 20 cases. Scott to Cory: July 26, 1918, Established about 10-12 cases. None have been refused.

*1918* RG2,1 12 June /Exemption of East Indians from Military Service/ #1459 mar--

*1919* 15 April /Martial Law/ Gross indignities. Mittal (1977:133) Public flogging, bowing to the ground, g% on g% where British attacked. Newspaper bans.

*1919* /Disturbances/ Polarized all Indians. Gandhi, R. Tagore renounced knighthood. Motilal Nehru shaken. 1919 Amritsar meeting of Congress, even though Gandhi puts conservative case unites Congress with Moslem League.

*1919* /After WWI/ Hopes by liberals that the British could give more self-government. Especially, Mohandas K. Gandhi and congress leaders like Nehru.

*1919* /After WWI/ Models for independence. Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Russian Revolution.

*1919* /Defense of India Rule of 1915 to Terminate/ Justice Sir Sydney Rowlatt, head of a 1917 Sedition Committee, created the Rowlatt Act, 1919: Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act. (In Mittal 1977: 113-7) It gave goverment approval to hang, life imprison without appeal, to hold without cause suspects, arrest without warrant, continuous confinement of those held under Defense rule. UNIVERSALLY CONDEMNED. Even Gandhi: Civil disobedience Campaign. Particularly in Punjab, reaction was rioting. J.Bhag.

*1919* LET 15 July /P.D. Sutherland, CPR HK to C.E. Benjamin, Montreal CPR/ jan12 Wnats to know government "unofficial" policy re: H. and immigration. Scared of local incident provoking events in India.

*1919* July /Naidis p.257/ Ghadar gives a s% to De Valera in San F.

*1919* /Hindu Land in California/ 86,335 acres leased, 2097 owned. (California 1922: 48)

*1919* /Note on the H. Revolutionary Movement in Cda./ 17pp. jan11 Ram Nath Puri (1907) started Hindustan Assoc. in San F. Published circular Of Freedom in Urdu (California). 1907 T.N.Das already in Van. and associated with movement. Das in 1908 working for immigration in Van. (US immigration), accused of taking bribes. Started Free Hindustan in April 1908 in Van. Moved to Seattle with Free Hindustan in June 1908. Guru Datt Kumar arrived in Vic. Oct.31 1907. Opened a grocery store with Das, whom he met in Calcutta. Moved in 1909 to Seatle with Das and then to Van. Kumar started Swadesh Sevak (Servant of the Country) in Gurmukli. Paper lasted until 1911. Bhag and Balwant (Pres. and priest of KDS) were seditionists. Har Dayal arrived in US in 1911. Pacific Coast Hindustan Assoc. in Astoria 1913. Dec.27, 1913 sedition meeting of KDS by by Hussain Rahm (Chayan Khairis Vadim). Ghadar poem read etc. Rahim arrived June 14, 1910. October- deport attempted, failed. Bhagwan S. (Granthi of HK) left May 1913. Came to Cda. as Natha S. June 7, 1913. Deported Nov.19, 1913. Ghadar very angry. May 22, 1914 - Bhagwan in San F. H. Rahim and Raja S. attempted to get the KM to land at Port Alberni. Charter was in name of Bhag and rahim. June 14, Harnam and Hakim S. tried to buy 25 pistols in Vic. Harnam, Bhag, Balwant and Mewa S. met T.N. Das in Sumas. Mewa was caught with 2 pistols and ammunition. Other three caught, each with pistols and ammunition. All four died later. 3 hanged and 1 shot. Bhag shot, Mewa hung, ergo: Harnam and Balwant hung in sedition trials? (check). Reid, Hop and Bela were vilified at meeting of Jan.1914. Bela later beaten. Aug.17, 1914 Harnam S.(Bela) disappeared on 31st . Later found with throat cut. Suspected Jagat S. as murderer. Left Vic. on Sept. 1. (Is Jagit a Ghadarite?) Sept.3 Arjan S. (Bela) shot by Ram S. Sept.5 Arjan cremated. Bela kills Bhag and shot others (7). Oct. 21, 1914 Hop shot by Mewa. Hanged Jan.11, 1915. Bela acquitted. Mar. 18 1915 Bela and 3 companions enter a H. store on Granville St. Jagat S. kills one (Rattan S.) and wounds Amar S. Just misses Bela. Jagat arrested and later executed. (Not so). April 15, 1916 dynamite cills one Sikh (Bela) and wounds 2 others. Sept. 5, 1914 in Vic. police see Sikhs (Gurdit and Dalip) and find bomb material. Harnam's home searched. Letter from Surendar Mohan Bose and enclosed Russian bomb manual, also letters re: T.N. Das processinf chemical for bombs and chemicals found at Gurdit's. Sept. 24, 1914 Gurdit and Dalip sentenced to 4 and 2 years. Gurdit was planning to return to India. He had 350 rounds of ammunition and fuses hidden in pillows. Harnam eventually deported from San F. Sept. 26, 1914 he joined the Burma conspiracy and was executed. Balwant joined Siam conspiracy and was hanged. Gurdit released Dec.29, 1917 and went back to bomb making. May 20, 1918, back to jail for 5 years. They trailed Ghadar in the mails: about 15 to Van., 13 to Vic., 6 to New Westminster, 30 others. Copies of Ghadar books (financial) were sent to Cda. 8 to leaders. Ram S., who shot Ram Chandra, was a "Canadian" who ahd regularly attended political meetings on Satudrday night at the Gudwara. Jan.11 to 14, 1917 memorial services at Gudwara at Fraser Mills. Jan.13 1918, 500 Sikhs attend. Mentioned Uttam S. who was executed in India. Nov. 1917 meeting in Van. temple to resist conscription. All Sikh mail to US routinely opened. After US trial, Malla S. and Bagga S. went to Cda. to meet leaders re: direction of Ghadar. Could not get across border.

*1919* VDT 14 April /B.C. Attorney Gen. J.W. de B. Farris protests./ jan11

*1919* LET 22 June /Lt. Col. Chas. Flick to Sun/ jan12 Estimated 10,000 Sikhs returned to India with German money. Saw literature in Hyderabad mentioned exclusion in B.C. Keep them out of Van.

*1919* LET 26 February /Nathan to S. A. Slader, Sec. to Gov. Gen./ feb-8 Notes that Malcolm Reid will get no more money from Dept. of Justice, re: H. investigations. Wants to know why. Will come to Ottawa.

*1919* LET 28 January /Brits. to Cda, again/ jan11 What's happening? Cory to J. A. Calder, Feb.17, 1919 Matter still not decided.

*1919* LET 16 March /Borden, Paris to Calder/ jan11 Confidential, coded: Must permit wives and children in, due to relations with Indian gov. Reply: expect order to go through this week.

*1919* LET 24 March /Scott to Calder/ jan11 Notes council approves of policy re: wives and children. Now must draft regulations.

*1919* 26 March /Privy Council Report P.C. 641/ jan11 Approves wives and children.(Mar.21) Scott to Reid, April 1, 1919: P.C. 641 passed on Mar.26. Don't give any publicity to it. April 3: CPR acknowledges changes.

*1919* 24 December /O. in C. P.C. 2498/ jan12 Suggests a registry system in India Re: wives. Feb.19, 1920: Gov. of India to Gov Cda.: Suggests register to come to Cda. then send documents to India.

*1919* LET 7 June /Tara S., Sec. KDS Van. to Borden/ jan12 Camplains that H. citizens of Cda. cannot get passage from HK even whne they post a cash bond to protect shipping lines from costs if deported. <100>

*1919* LET 7 June /KDS Van. to Minister of Immigration/ jan21 Many Cdn. citizens cannot come from HK to Van. even with cash guarantee the CPR will not give them tickets.

*1919* LET 4 August /Reid to Cory/ jan21 Over 100 H. left Van. on Oct.15, 1915 to board Tenyo Maru in San F. Suggests none of the revolutionaries be let back into Cda.

*1919* LET 10 July /Reid to Jolliffe/ jan21 All these leaving on the Tenyo Maru Oct.14, 1914 were revolutionaries. The chip was chartered from San F. CANNOT now enter.

*1919* 26 March /P.C.641 allows wives and minor children/ mar--

*1919* LET 28 November /McCrae, Vic. to Jolliffe, Van./ jan12 Noe permits have been issued to H. so they can leave and get families. About 250 H. on Van. Island.

*1919* 13 April /Re: Brig. Gen. R.E.H. Dyer and Jalliawala Bagh/ jan24 Meeting in Amritsar was to protest th Rowlatt bills.

*1919* World 29 September /Prairies Surrounded by C% Children/ jan12 Prince of Wales given petition by Van. H. critical of theie treatment. Signed by Harbant S. Sandhu. Reid to Cory (confidential) Oct.2 Present above were H. rahim, Harbant S. (Baltoha, Lahore) and Kapoor (Khalri, Amritsar) and Atma S. (Dhidyal, Jallundar) and Ram S. (Rauia, Ferezepur).

*1919* Ma /Santokh and Bhagwan S./ p.131 apr-- Sept.: meet in San F. and revive Ghadar. In 1920 printed Independent Hindustan, communist. Note: Jalliawala Bagh.

*1919* Post /Gudwara Movement/ British interfered with management of temples especially, Golden temple. Introduction of Hindu practices, direct appointment of manager by British. Chief Khalsa Diwan did not have control over Golden Temple or many others. He was suspect as too conservative, and too little political.

*1920* /Native Exclusion/ "Pure blood" or living on a reserve. 1949 full franchise.

*1920* /Statutes of Cda. Chap. 46, Sec.30, ss.G/ Continued the revisions re: provinces and race and the vote. This was the Dominion Franchise Bill.

*1920* Hers.:1974 /US Returnees/ p.590 1920-40 about 3000 returned to India. 1920-40 about 3000 illegal immigrants, via Mexixo.

*1920* /Gammons, Ed : The Big Irishman/ jan24 1902: Invincible India, San F. Hindustanee Ghadar. Good mix of Indian and other material including "an Irish Amritsar" slaughter of Irish troops in war.

*1920* /Discrimination/ Not let into better restaurants and theatres. No police harassment.

*1920* /Split Wage Differential/ About 10-20 per cent. All skilled jobs went to whites.

*1920* Cheng /Savings during 1920's/ H. average: $800 per year. Ch. $500 per year. J. $570 per year. JW/born nothing. H. sent to India an average of $400 per year.

*1920* Cheng 1931 /H. Save $800 a year out of $1320/ p.203 This contracts to $550/$1080 for Chinese. $510/1080 for Japanese. Of this H. returned $400 to India.

*1920* Cheng 1931 /H. savings greater than Ch. or J./ p.203 H. can save $800 per year as against Chinese $550 and Japanese $57.

*1920* World 6 Febraury /H. farmer of Ladner with crop of potatoes/ jan12 Moonshee Ram employs 20 whites at Sperling sawmill.

*1920* /S.A. in the Lumber Industry during 1920's/ 9/10 of H. are in it: 600 out of 650 workers. 1/3 are Japanese. 1/5 are Chinese. Wages are 60 per cent of whites, but H. get more. Only one H. store in Van.

*1920* /Early 1920's Lumber/ 3 ex-Fraser V. owners to Van. Island with many offers. Built the East India Lumber Company at Ladysmith and Mayo Lumber Co. in Duncan. Employed about 2-300.

*1920* /Mayo S. Kapoor Lumber Co./ Partner to Kapoor S. Born in Paldi.

*1920* /Kapoor S. Sidoo, Kapoor Mills in Barnet; Mayo Mills in Duncan/

*1920* /Kapoor S. Mayo Lumber, Duncan/ 1905: to Calcutta re: business. Then to Oroville Calif. becoming gang leader West. Pacific R.R. 1912: contract fruit picking. 1914 went to farm in N.W. Ontario. 392 men work there: 73 Cdn., 181 Ch., 97 S.A., 41 J.

*1920* /Kapoor S.S. of Kapoor Mill, Barnet. Mayo S.: Mayo Mills, Duncan/

*1920* /K. Singh 1(3):1-4/

*1920* /K. Singh, 1930 2(2):8 Mayo S. of Kapoor Lumber Co. born in Paldi/

*1920* Cheng /Dining Clubs of 1920's/ p.199 12-20 in each. Have cook, share expenses. $27 per month plus $60 year for clothing.

*1920* Cheng 1931 /Probably none converted to Christianity/

*1920* /Fuel-Dealing/ 1927: 21 in Lower Mainland. Sohan Brothers, Burnaby has 30 fuel trucks. Dated back to 1907. Prior to this, most fuel was coal. By 1915 a dozen were in Vic. at $10 day. This ended about 1960.

*1920* Das, 1923 /$1 for food, per day/

*1920* Andracki, 1958 /Immigration Stats/ p.117 1915 to 1920 : no immigrants. 1921:10 1922:13 1923:21 1924:40 1925:46

*1920* June /Mit S. still did not know if possible to get wife to Cda./ jan12

*1920* LET 13 Febraury /Scott to Under Sec. State, Ext. Affairs/ jan12 Among other material notes allow in the brother of the wife of Indar S.

*1920* LET 28 July /Jolliffe to Blair/ jan12 CPR has called from HK. H. there without certificates of last domicile, so cannot come to Cda.

*1920* 20 September /Still no established system to register wives./ jan12

*1920* RS /Bhag Singh Canadian/ p.31 apr-- Leader of Akalis, Sikh League in 1930's. Kisan movement in Doaba.

*1920* /Ontario also passes bill. Van. passed it June 1920/ feb12

*1920* /Lumber Industry in Fraser Valley/ 1908-12: growth of Lower Fraser Valley mills, for Prairies. 1908: 175 S.A. at Fraser Mills. 1910: displaced by French Cdns. 1914-5: bought saw mills. 1920's: sold saw mills and went to Van. Island.

*1920* 19 January /Correspondence between U of T and Gov. of India re: students/ jan12 Gov. says: no problem.

*1921* /Central Gudwara Management Committee/ Shiromani Gudwara Prabandhak Committee: begun 1920, theme: non-cooperation. Shiromani Akali Dal: "Army of Immortals"; Akali Jathas. 1921: Gudwara Nankana Sahib: 130 killed. Led to a series of Mahants ejected. 1922: Golden temple secured.

*1921* Mittal 1977 /Babbar Akali Movement/ p.212-215 Hosbrapur and Jullendur were the centre. Violent revolutionary Slkhs related to general Akali movement. 1921: plan to murder CID locals even to kill loyalist Sikhs. 1922-23 to late 1925: Babbar Akali conspiracy case. 6 hung in 1926, 49 sentenced to prison.

*1921* Das /Wages around 1920 were about $900 per year/ p.55

*1921* Cheng 1931 /Figures for wage labour: 695 H. in lumber/ p.166

*1921* Das /H. rated as excellent workers/ p.41-42

*1921* Cheng 1931 /Imperial Conference of 1921/ p.157 Passed a resolution re: H. vote. Meighan was present. Meighan censured in opposition. Not binding on M.K.

*1921* LET 20 August /Lord Byng to Colonial Sec./ jan13 Code: OK with Cda. if Maharajah of Cutch and Srinivasa-Sastri comes to Cda. reply: Sec. of State for Colonies to Byng (in code): Oct.20, 1921: Maharajah did not go. Sastri will.

*1921* LET 27 January /Malcolm Reid to Cory/ jan24 Big meeting of revolutionaries in Stockton on 15th. Surain S. from Van. was there.

*1921* LET 28 January /Reid to Cory/ jan24 Meeting of van. temple on 14th, in order to support families of those who went to India in 1914-15. $13,337 collected. List of committee included: Kapoor S., Mit S. Jan.23, meeting to commemorate Mewa S. at Fraser Mills. $800 collected.

*1921* LET 8 June /Reid to J.E. Featherson, Super. of Personnel, Dept. of Immigration and Colonies/ jan13 Confidential: Re: Mewa S. Day at Fraser Mills temple. Diyas, Bubant S., Juwalla S. and Mit S. praised Mewa S. and sent greetings to Mahatma Gandhi. Collect $844.65 for freedom of India. 200-250 present.

*1921* LET 17 September /HK KDS to Ganga Ram, Van./ jan12 Copy of an opened letter: Ganga has claimed to work in immigration dept. Bishen S. hopes Hanga will reunite Van. community. Bishen is very fancy. 40 men now with him in HK. (New claims: Ganga is an employee.

*1921* /Imperial Conference of 1921/ Prime Minister Meighan has OKed the vote for East Indians but suffered election defeat by Mackenzie King. King is opposed.

*1921* Lowes /Immigration Stats/ p.60 1921: 42, no increase of figures. About 172 wives between 1921-31, 256 wives between 1921-42, 423 children from 1921-42.

*1921* J. Tolme 1929 /Population of S.A. in B.C./ 1911: 2292; 1921:951; 1927:1233.

*1921* /Total East Indian: 1921:1016, 1931:1400/

*1921* Cheng /951 in B.C. in 1921, 65 in other provinces; Only 720 by 1930/

*1921* LET 20 July /Reid to Cory/ jan24 ranjani Kant Das, teacher at UNY, and CCNY is goin to Pacific Coast to look at H. labour candidates. He suggests that Das not be let in. reply: OK. Cory to NY Cda.: check on him. W.R. Little, NY Commisioner to Cory, Aug.10, 1921: Das is a special agent for US Bureau of Labour Stats. Das is in US for 16 years, graduate of several Universities.

*1921* LET 7 April /Reid to Cory/ jan24 He has a H. agitator confusing the program of Hardiker etc. "Your officer". $2700 was collected and given to Hardiker.

*1921* LET 28 March /Leighton Thomas to H.H. Stevens/ jan24 Local van. H. interested in communist of OBU ideas.

*1921* LET 2 March /D.B. McConnan, Asst. Receiver Gen., Vic. to J. Rourke, Comptroller of Currency, Ottawa/ RG19 E2C 1919-25 Vol.532 File 134-1 In last month 9 have taken out $15,151 for India. None previously.

*1921* LET 2 April /F.O. Blair to Cory/ jan24 Dr. Hardiker supported Gandhi, gave three lectures in Van. H. Rahim chaired first of the meetings. Note: verbatim report of meeting has name cut out.

*1921* LET 2 March /Jolliffe to Blair/ jan12 Suggests benning those who have left Cda. for more than 3 years. Blair approves Mar. 15, 1921.

*1921* LET 6 August /HK KDS to Colonial Sec., HK/ jan21 Has been supporting those stranded in HK. Same for over three months.

*1922* /Kirpan Agitations/ Jatha's attack with non-violence, 1,650 beaten, 5,605 arrested re: Mahaut controlled land. Guru Ka Bhag.

*1922* Sun 30 June /Gurdit S. is indicted, to face charge of sedition/ jan29

*1922* RG25/G1 V1300f 1011p /Visit of Mr. Sastri/ 2in Total cost to Cdn. gov. $3,600 and $1500. Sept. 5-23, 1922. Re: Continuous Journey: F.C. Blair to Pope, July 31, 1922: From 1910-11 to 1919-23, 75,000 immigrants were rejected on the International Boundary because they did not fulfill this regulation. A. Clogstoun to Gov. report, 1914: Crime and H. in Van. from 1911-13: Against people: 50; morals:14; public order:318; state:53; property:0; Total: 440. 32pp. report on KM by Clogstoun Nov.5, 1914.

*1922* LET 6 September /Meighan to Stevens/ HH-20 Includes memo on vote from Shastri. He thinks that they should get the vote "this in writing to all P.C. MP's.

*1922* /Non-cooperation under Gandhi and other H./ Khilagat movement under Moslems, communal riots.

*1922* LET 20 September /HH to A. Meighan: HH agrees/ HH-21

*1922* /After V.S. Srinivasa Sastri tour/ There was a house of Commons debate on the franchised. C. House of Commons debates, 1923 pp.4640-4653. There was support re: small size of community, and 1921 Imperial Conference. Use quote p.24 re: Asians reining the enemy. V.S. Woodsvath supported franchise.

*1922* August /Newspapers full of visit of Sastri/ jan25

*1922* 2 September /Shastri's Report, 9pp/ HH-22

*1922* LET 25 July /F.C. Blair to Sir J. Pope/ jan13 H. get naturalized normally. Vote depends on B.C. Arrivals: 1914-20: 1. 1920-1:10 (3 dependents). 1921-22:15 (8 dependents) Total: 5320

*1922* LET 4 August /Jolliffe to J. Forster, CPR Van./ jan13 Cannot let in Narindar S. even though he got a permit Mar.10, 1914. Absent too long.

*1922* LET 27 April /Blair to Jolliffe/ jan13 Sill proceedure not worked out.

*1922* LET 5 October /Jolliffe to Blair/ jan13 No proceedure yet. Lord Devonshire to Byng, February 1923: India's gov. still has not commented.

*1922* RG25 G1 V1300 f1011 /Visit of Sastri, 3in/ Report in 1923 on visit to Australia and New Zealand. Who came to dinner Augsut 25, 1922: Mackenzie King, Borden, Pope.

*1923* /Jaito Incident/ July 1923 forward; Akand Path begun at Jaito, Naiha State in protest of deposition of Maharajah. Ripudaman S. and J.L. Nehru go and are arrested. Feb.10 1924: 90K. and 300W. in jail. Sept.1, 1923: Jatera attacked at Jaito. 11 from Van. reach jaito area. 4 from HK and 10 from Singapore with them. Jaito campaign continued to July 21, 1925.

*1923* - *1939* /50 deportations actually occurred/

*1923* LET 5 July /Lt. Col. Campbell, Simla to Blair/ jan13 Could he, as British India ex-serviceman bring his Anglo-Indian wife to Cda. Reply: yes.

*1923* - *1924* Ma /Rattan and Santokh/ p.133-4 apr-- 4th conference of T on Third International, then to India. Established contracts with Bengalis. 1924: Teja S. Sutantar sent from kabul to Constantinople for military training.

*1923* /House of Commons Debates/ pp.4073-4640 MP S.W. Jacobs introduces a resolution re: H. vote in Parliament. Deferred to Dominion Elections Act.

*1923* Das /1000 bank accounts of $350 each/ p.101

*1923* Das /Mills at Duncan, Ladysmith, Coombs Van., Tansor L.C., Mayo L.C., Eastern, Virginia, and Bharat/ p.27

*1923* Das /Enterprises in B.C./ p.27 7 logging camps, 6 lumber co.'s, 2 shingle factories, 2 groceries, about 50 firewood stores, 25 farms. 3-6 partners generally.

*1923* Anonymous /Most politicians in facor of Sastri's proposal re: vote, but won't act/ p.403

*1923* 8 February /Proceedure re: Facilitating Admission of Wives and Children/ feb-9 Circular 106-EMI Goverment of India.

*1923* LET 1 September /Jolliffe to Blair/ jan13 Still not resolved.

*1923* 20 February /Still no proceedures for wives and children/ feb-9

*1924* LET 31 March /Sec. State for Colonies to Gov. Gen./ jan22 Confidential: Would like to continue to get information on H. arriving in C. from Cdn. gov. Reply: Sure. April 29, 1924. July 21, 1924 Commissoner to Percy Reid, Van.: Collect information for gov.

*1924* LET 5 August /Percy Reid to S.N. Reed, Officer in Vic./ jan14 Indian Gov. requests information on all H. leaving or arriving in Cda.

*1924* VDC 18 July /11 Sikhs from Cda. Renounce worldly goods to go fight Raj/ jan14 Sohan Lal who is secretary of of Canadian-American Society of Sikhs. Percy reid claims they are all Akali. July 22, 1924 in Sun, p.1, a picture of all 11.

*1924* /B.C. Provincial Elections Act/ R.S. 1924, C.76, s.1 Disenfranchises all Asians except WWI Japanese.

*1924* /6 H. at UBC/

*1924* LET 3 January /F.C. Blair to ---/ `_n20__=uraÀ___ó wip___nglo,___n fa____ are __
 thop___ith @¶ÙaŸ_____?_äÊ@Ù¶Ûd_ÃÁÃÀ`___ÈШÛmàÈ܁5_¶Ûi@¸I•¶ÛѼ½´m¶ýÍ¥½¸Ûm¿%µµ¥ÀÛi¥½¸¼­¶ÐÄÐ4) Óm€…¹6ß鄁L¸…ÉÉ¥Ù”¥¸Y…¸¸
oth graduates of Punjab U. Wish to enroll at UBC. Reid requires $1000 cash bond each (contrary to law).

*1924* LET 12 June /Sec. of State for Colonies to Gov. Gen./ jan14 Confidential: Re: Wives and children. 1. I only issue passports to non-immigrants, Cdn. residents, wives and children. Re: residents (only valid for 18 months). Dist. government will issue wives and children permits from Van immigration office. Gov. of India wants wives and children, specifically exempt from continuous passage regulations.

*1924* LET 26 January /A. Gillies , Ottawa C and I, to Jolliffe/ jan14 Sill Indian gov. has not replied.

*1924* /Note/ jan14 W.J. Egan is Deputy Minister. Percy Reid is Division Commissioner in Van. Malcolm Reid is special officer still.

*1925* /Sikh Gudwara Bill, passed Nov.1925/ Put all historical Sikh shrines under committee. 400 lives lost, and 2000 wounded. <200>

*1925* /Note: Naturalization and Citizenship/ jan14

*1925* LET 13 June /Indian Gov. to Gov. Gen./ jan14 Finally, gets a rule into print. Document incorporates rules for all dominions and some colonies.

*1925* Cheng /Ages/ p.205 1-20 : 60; 20-40 : 40; 41+ :620

*1925* Cheng 1931 /Earnings/ p.198 H. make an average of $110 permonth. None less than $100. Chinese and Japanese averaged $70 per month.

*1925* Cheng /Ages/ p.205 In B.C. he polled 670 men and 50 women. 20 women under 20 years. 605 men over 41 years.

*1926* Ma /Background/ p.135-8 apr-- Babbar Akali influenced Cda. and US. Money sent to India continuously in the 1920's. rattan S. sent to Akali Dal to get support. Ghadar publicity for India in San F.

*1926* LET 11 November /Gov. of India, Home Political to Sec. of State for India/ RG25 01 V727 File82 Report from Delhi: Grani Waran S. letter to Amritsar intercepted. In Mar. KDS collected funds for Babbar Akali's families. In May R.3000 was collected. Also in Vic., there were meetings founded an Imprisoned Patriots Relief Fund. Cdn. Doaba Press Society contributed $1000 in 1925. P.C. Vickery to Cory, Feb.16 1927: He rplaces J.W. Wallinger (Sir). Russia has a plan to unsettle Sikhs. Would like to revive system run first by Sir Robert Nathan, then Mr. Marr, the himself with Malcolm Reid. Afterwards Reid di so alone up to 1924. Would like again to do it and have 2-3 Indian spies. RCMP Van. is presently helping them. Want these communications kept confidential. V.D. Skelton to Mr. King, Mar.19, 1926: Should be careful. Gives tentative recommendation. Decided that bureaucratically it could work. Cdn. Gov. clearly more independent than in 1910's. Will not automatically watch Indians.

*1927* /Memo: Revolutionary Agitations among H. (Sikhs) in B.C./ feb-9 Prepared by RCMP, March 1926. Scotland Yard informed that Giani Harnam S. of KDS made a poster to support Babbar Akalis. Held a meeting on subject. Money collected. Ghadar is still published. Giani H.S. retuned to 1926 to India with $10,000 for sedition.

*1927* LET 18 March /Dominions Office (London) to Gov. Gen/ feb-9 Local Van. Sikhs are contributing to a periodical India-The Position Today, published in England. It is seditious, and banned in India.

*1927* LET 28 June /Viceroy to Sec. State for India/ feb-9 In due regard to situation likely to arise in Shanghai, an offer must be sent to Shanghai area immediately to watch Sikhs. Especially California Ghadar party activity. Sec. State for India reply: has dispatched.

*1927* LET 28 February /Dominions Office Tender to Gov. Gen/ feb-9 Ward has reached them that 40 Sikhs and others intend to leave for China for revolutionary purposes. Must watch Cdn. ports.

*1927* LET 7 June /G. Worsley, Asst. Commissioner RCMP to Gov. Gen. Secretary/ feb-9 Sandhu Singh Dalimi, student at U of A, delivering seditious speech in Van KDS. meeting.

*1925* /KDS Located/ Van. Vic., Ab., N.W., Fraser M., Duncan, Coombs, Ocean Falls.

*1927* LET 1 June /Petition from Kapoor S., Hira S, Van. KDS to Gov. Gen./ jan14 1. 1100 are here, only 10 per year immigrate. 2. Much unrest in India. 3. How about the rights of other citizens? 4. How about those banned returnees? 5. How about citizenship? 6. Graduated students should be allowed to stay.

*1927* LET 1 June /Petition of Van. KDS, Kapoor and Hira S. to Gov. Gen./ feb-9 Concerning various liberties.

*1927* Cheng 1930 /KDS members sent $296 up to 1921/ p.228

*9127* /B.C. Legislative Assembly/ Established that 1103 S.A. in province in 1925. Declining immigration. 951 at 1921 census. $191,610 in land in municipality, and $210309 in total.

*1927* /B.C. Leg. Assembly/ Sawmill %%%

*1928* /Kawal S. Littar/ 1928-1953 in Lethbridge with 2 others. Others in Medicine Hat.

*1928* /Harnam Singh Hari/ With wife, of the Glenmore district, Alberta. Born Patiala. Indian army for 5 years, went to Calgary. After farm work in B.C. walked from Banff to Calgary. Now holds 1280 acres.

*1928* LET 10 November /Blair to Mr. Gillmore/ jan14 PM (Mr. King) wants a report re: voting restrictions on H. in B.C.

*1928* Calif 1953 /Ghadar had estimated 1500 members in Calif./ p.216

*1929* Mittal 1977 /Congress Session in Lahore/ p.224-5 J. Nehru led. Subhash Chandra Bose important. Still conciliatory but wanted Congress supporters not to play roles in Gov.

*1929* LET 3 May /Attorney Ray Marwell, Marysville Calif. to Van. Immigration Office/ jan14 Dalip S., a client wished to stay in Cda, one month on trip India. A. Campbell, HMS Consulate gen. San F. to Van. Office: Dalip is under suspicion. Do not allow entry. Jolliffe: don't allow entry.

*1929* /Kartar S. 1(1)/ Farming near Kamloops, Kelowna, Chilliwack.

*1929* /Kartar S./ Spent 1914 to 1929 in Toronto area. 1929 India and Canada.

*1929* 15 April /Kartar Singh 1(1): 3 R. Tagore/ Meeting chaired by Lord Willingdon Gov. Gen. in Victoria. Also C.F. Andrews acommpanied Kartar across Cda.

*1929* Cheng /Hindustan Swaraj Sabha/

*1929* /Hindustan Young Men's Association in Van./

*1929* 15 April /India and Canada V1(1), Rabindranath Tagore/ Tagore spoke in Van. on 15 April, and later in Vic. theatre. Later cancelled tour to America due to "rudeness." Vic. meeting presided over by Lord Willingdon. C.F. Andrews travelled across country.

*1929* Perry /Akali very strong force/ p.578 Letters from ten who went to India read in temple.

*1929* Osterhout /S.A. have large savings and many mills/ p.194-7 They have earned respect. 150 working in Golden.

*1929* /B.C. Average Wage/ $29.20 per week. Worst of depression: $22.30.

*1929* Osterhout /Only 20 S.A. children of school age/ p.61

*1929* Osterhout /MacRae continues his work/ p.191 Kanshi Ram is assistant. Estminated at most 75-80 women.

*1929* Tolme /Mills at Duncan, Ladysmith, Coombs, Van./ p.132 7 loggin camps, 2 shingle factories, 6 lumber co., 2 green-grocers, 25 farms, 56 firewood.

*1929* July /I and C 1(2)/ Bhag S., MA Berkeley, cannot gain entrance to Cda. to visit.

*1929* Cheng 1931 /About 600-650 workers in lumber and saw mills. Paid more than J. or Ch./ p.198

*1929* Osterhout /Claims 75-80 women/ p.191

*1929* Osterhout /Only 20 East Indian children of school age/ p.61

*1929* K. Singh /1(2):1 Re: Immigration Problems and Students/

*1929* /India and Canada: V1:1 About 200 families/

*1929* /Sohan Singh Josh/ Leader of Kirti Party about 1930. 1929, president of nau Jawan Bharnt Sabha. Arrested re: Meerut conspiracy case. 1925: Arrested in Akali case. <End Box 4 243>

*1930* April Vol.2(2), Kartar S.,Ed./India and Canada, Van./ jan21 Published at 2019 Vine St. Both English and Punjabi. p.2: First Cdn. Sikh aviator. p.3: on Mayo S. success.

*1930* RS /Sohan S. Bhakma/ p.30 apr-- Gurmukh S. became president of All-India Kisan Sabha. G.S. on KM organizer of Congress in Afghanistan.

*1931* Ma /Ghadar/ p.141 apr Nidhan Singh, Pres. of Ghadar, arrested as a communist.

*1930* - *1934* /Smuggling/ jan14 Fairly elaborate smuggling system evolved to get H. into Cda. from the US.

*1936* n.d. LET /Mario Proctor, District Commissioner, Seattle District, US Dept. of Labour, Immigration and Naturalization Service to Fred Taylor/ jan22 5 H., previously of US are in Moscow, going to be sent back to enter Ghadar party. They are Nidhan S., Pres. Ghadar, California; Joga S. previous Sec. of Ghadar, Harajan S., tarjan S., Harmindar S, Madran S.. They left separately for Moscow. Reply: June 16, 1936.

*1920* - *1939* - *1951* Jain (?) /130 Immigrants/ 1925: 36; '26:62; '27: 56; '28: 53; '29: 58; 1930: 80; '31: 47; '32: 63; '33: 33; '34: 33; '35: 20; '36: 13; '37: 14; '38: 14; '39: 14. Totals: 1926-35: about 548, '36-45: about 81, 46-47: 1; 47-48: 167; 48-49: 64; 49-50: 54; 50-51: 93.

*1920's* /Social Problems/ Drink, litigation, Van. police estimate that H. and J. have lowest general crime rate: Example: 1922-3 Out of 1609 robberies, NONE were committed by Asians.

*1931* Cheng /H. and J. very law-abiding in view of Van. police/ p.230

*1931* Cheng /About 720 total population, 50 women/ p.205

*1929* /Arjan S. Sangray%/ Goes to Kelowna. Very isolated from 1929-49.

*1920's* /Dairy Farming in Fraser Valley/ In 1920's about 10-15 farms. Lack of family made a difference. Usually about 100 acres and 50 cows. Note soom farming in other places (see oral History).

*1930* /TLC (of Cda.) Proceedings/ 1930 platform point: exclusion of all Orientals. 1931-1941 re-emphasis of "exclusion of all races that cannot be properly assimilated".

*1931* Cheng /Lumber Mills/ p.167 Lumber mills (H.) have less than $10,000 capital. 10-20 workers. Run on a partnership basis, workers are often part owners. Wages: 40-50 cents per hour for 9 hours. About $4 day.

*1930* /Farms in Kamloops, Kelowna, Chilliwack/

*1930* Dhani, Sadhu Singh 1969/ "Discovering the New World", Queen's Quarterly, Vol.76: 200-212/ Royal Comm. Soc. 244 In Van. 1922 teenage little hostility. J. Oliver H.'s couldn't buy ticket in movies. Went ot UBC, Lived at Dominion Lumber Mills (Fraser), between New Westminster and Van. Westernized, cut his hair. Some C.'s visited Gudwara during celebrations. One year at UBC 1924-5, notes British army officer support of East Indians. Also Ghadar: anti-Gandhi. Elder: Bhai Gurbachan S. In 1930's summer, Punjabi Lumber Mills in Edmonton.

*1930* Kartar S. collection /India and Canada, (Monthly), Van./ Weekly editions through about 20 editions. Fortnightly Edition 1932-39. Several of each.

*1931* /Prior to 1931/ Aisans were not restricted in acquisition of citizenship through naturalization. 1931 P.C. 1378: limited naturalization to J. and Ch. who would show they renounced nationality.

*1931* 7 April /RCMP Van. Report/ jan14 Hindoo smuggled into Cda. by Gulam Rasul, store owner on Prior St. Gurbachan S. techel leason for CPR in Van.

*1931* RG 25 G1 V1771 No.104 /Correspondence re E.W.Morse on question of his thesis sources/

*1934* B.C.Studies /Minimum Wage Law: in mills 35 cents, 25 percent paid 25 perent less/ Ch.47

*1934* BC D. of L. /H. in workforce/ 524/529 H. in workforce employed in wood, none in pulp and paper. 1940: 530/549.

*1935* Morse /H. Boarders/ p.169 In 1935 average wage about $100 per month. There was a Hindustani Swaraj Sabha. Many are redueced to boarders, sometimes in barracks of 20 or so.

*1933* 31 July / List of Outstanding applications in Vic./ jan14 Has names and addresses of 122 applications. Date of permit letters: 6 in 1920-25. 3 in 1926. 3 in 1927. 4 in 1928. 1 in 1929. 2 in 1930. 1 in 1931. 137 letters written re: sons between 1930-33. 36 for wives in Vancouver.

*1934* Angus /In 1930's H. became East Indians/

*1931* LET 30 September /-----to Prime Minister/ jan14 "Finks" on a member of illegal immigrant who faced papers in India. Let me come to Cdn. Gov. service and help you clean them out. (Signed) B.R. Singh, Kharodi, Aosharpur.

*1933* 18 June /Secret Letter/ jan14 Don't worry about passport cancellations, write for extensions, than go to Singapore without passport. Get passaprt there for Rs 40-50.

*1933* LET 29 November /Jolliffe, Commissioner to E.S. Dougherty, HK Immigration Office/ jan14 Re: Amar S. and Dalipa, returning to Van. 3 days late: too bad. Don't let them in.

*1933* LET 29 March /Prime Minister to Sit Atul Chatterjee, Inida Office London/ RG13 V382 No.484 On vote for H.: He has no objection but did not know how to get BC to change.

*1937* /Memo on the Admission to the Prov. and to the Dominion Franchise of Indians Resident in BC /jan15 1931: estimated 1599 population. (1921:1016) Mackenzie King cliamed he couldn't move because he did not have a majority vote in the House. (1922) 1923: Imperial Conference King was still uncommitted. 1935 Empire Parliamentary Conference, no result. Committee on Privelege and Elections did not think it advisable to become law. (1925) 1932 Sir Atul Chatterjee brings up matter wtih R.B. Bennett and with cabinet. Commonwealth Relations Conference in Toronto, 1933, matter raised again. Issue of need to include in Franchise the federal vote. No result.

*1932* /CCF Formed/ Eas pro-Ch. and J.. 1934 Liberals atacked CCF re: support for Asian vote.

*1935* LET August //Mr. Coverly-Price, London to Cdn. Gov./ RG25 G1 V1703 No.490 Hon. B.K. Basu, presently Indian member at League of nations is disturbed about BC and may raise at Geneva. Sec. State for Ext. Affairs to High Commission in London: Br. Indians not considered in New Franchise Act, June 19, 1934. Sec. State for Ext. Affairs to Cdn. Minister in French, May 31, 1934: May be able to include them.

*1938* /No relief charges on H. during depression/ CBR 1938 Interim

*1938* /Secret Biography on Anup S. Dillon/ jan15 U of C. Berkeley, 1922, PhD Political Science, Harvard. Was a Ghadarite. 1930 severed relations with them. 1935 in India. Talked to gandhi, Nehru, etc. Van. 1938, Sec. of India League of %. Also Dr. V.B. Mukherji, and Dr. Mazumdar.

*1940* Lower /C. and the Far East/ p.72, 84 Economic conditions for a H. worse than Ch. and J. "Custom" of not hiring for gov. work.

*1937* 31 August /Secret RCMP Report, Van./ jan15 Rumors in H. community that Indian Gov. investigating those with Bombay passports. Committee at local KDS: Gurdit, Naina, Hakam (son under arrest in Bombay re: ammunition literature, a member of Ghadar) collected money adn got lawyer. At Vic. Kapoor S. and Mayo S. put in money because they are believed to have brought in many illegal "relatives". $1500 collected. Secret RCMP Report, Dec. 24, 1937: Canada India Association formed: $6000 collected: goal: illegal immigrants release. Secret RCMP Report Feb.14, 1938: Kapoor and Mayo gave Anup S. $500 cash to go to Ottawa and intercede for illegals. Again: they are principal importers of H.'s. Secret RCMP Report Mar.17, 1938: Dr. Anup S. requests to U. of A. to get Sadhu S., a student radical. This is Dr. Sadhu S. Dhami, PhD Toronto.

*1938* 30 June /Seattle/ jan15 Anup S. arrested for falsely claiming marriage to G. Lang on entry to US. Charge: "entering US for immoral purpose." Will try to deport to India. Nov.1938: deportation concelled. A.S. released.

*1938* /Cdn. Board of Review, Interim/ p.249 59 East Indian illegals reported. Dr. Anup S., PhD Harvard to Ottawa: issue is splitting the community. Appendix 1 p.2: Informers report: note D: no relief charges re: Hindus. Note K: petition signed by SSD.

*1938* /Cdn. Board of Review, Report/ p.10 2 deported, 15 held.

*1939* 29 April /RCMP/ jan15 Dr. Anup S. speaks at temple. Tells them to form a squad of 6-8 young men to kill anyone who informs on illegals. Informant is S.A. Jolliffe replies: don't believe informant. Anup is very cultured person.

*1939* LET 31 July /Fred Taylor to Blair, Director of Immigration/ jan16 Naina S., ex-interpreter and informer is the main problem.

*1939* LET 11 July /Director, Immigration Branch, for File/ jan16 Mr. Jolliffe and he talked with Dr. D.P. Panida, Private secretary to Gandhi. Came to Ottawa with Ishar S. In fianl report of Board of Review pp.5-6, there are 22 cases of illegal H.'s in Cda. Pandia very intolerant of Pacific Coast quarreling and ignorance. Pandia also saw the minister who sent word to dept. not to deport without his OK. Also saw the Prime Minister. Pandia used press in BC T.A. Crerar, Minister of Mines and Resources.

*1939* LET 29 August /Copy of Letter from Dhana and Bishan S. to Pandia/ jan16 Re; their deportation cases. Note still copying their mail. NO: Pandia sent them.

*1939* /District Super., Eastern Div. to File/ jan16 Theosophical society of Cda. claims 1.Pandia PhD. is not verifiable. 2. Night commander of Star of India not verified. 3. Preaches "Reformed Hinduism". Upset over $100 fee, but no result.

*1939* /Revised listof Deports/ jan16 4 Appealed to court. 5 Ordered deported. 15 Pending. 3 can't be found.

*1939* 10 July /76th Congress, 1st Session, H.R. 7110/ jan16 To permit the approx. 3000 H. who entered prior to 1924 to become naturalized. Pandia had a jand in it(?) Pandia to Blair, Feb.22, 1940:Has stopped deportation proceedings on 50 H. in the US. (Wash. D.C.)

*1939* LET 4 March /Ishan S. Sec. Indian National Congress to Jolliffe/ jan15 There are about 50-60 H. illegals in BC please allow them to stay.

*1939* LET 10 August /Blair memo for file/ jan16 Should do everything to keep Br. Indian from embarassment. Especially re: Japan.

*1938* /Overseas Indians Reciprocity Bill confirmed/ jan15 Goving Ballabb Pant comes up again. Ottawa concerned re: trade and taxation.

*1939* LET 11 August /Blair to Crerar/ jan16 Saw Pandi again. Suggests a halt to deports, but do not tell Pandia.

*1939* LET 9 September /Mr. O. Skelton, Under Sec. of State for Ext. Affairs to Blair/ jan16 Don't forget KM incident. Now negotiating a favorable trade agreement with India. Suggests OK to deportees staying in Cda. Reply, Sept.13: OK but will not announce it.

*1939* LET 22 September /Blair to Dr. H. Keensleyside, Ext. Affairs/ jan16 Will announce stopping of deports. Will not credit Pandia. Keensleyside to Blair, Sept.21, 1939: White Cda. Assoc. in BC make announcement of number of people involved. Sept.25, telegram to Gov. of India: On 28th press release to CP.

*1939 LET 20 November /Taylor to Commissioner/ jan16 There are actually about 225 illegals who have registered -- not 50-75. Pandia is still there, Nov.7.

*1940* LET 9 January /Taylor to Commissioner/ jan16 Told Kartar S.. Chairman of East Indian committee that Jan.31 is the deadline.

*1940* /Bahan S./ jan16 Bahan S. claims to have put up the money for Pandia's trip to Ottawa, but never got compensation.

*1940* LET 11 June /Diwan S. to Crerar/ jan16 Private: offers to inform on others.

*1940* LET 30 June /Marg Anet Crang, BA, LLB, Edmonton, to Blair/ jan16 Has come to Ottawa re: wives and children of 225 illegals.

*1940* let 5 December /CID BC Police, Re: Pandia/ jan16 Is not a significant figure in India. An imposter. No real connection with Gandhi.

*1941* LET 11 February /H. Division, RCMP, to Commissioner/ jan16 Secret: Intercepts 3 telegrams from Pandia in Ottawa, requesting money of Puran S. Gill, Induct Lumber Co., Youbou% and Doman S. at Hillcrest Lumber Co., and Hardit S. Victoria temple.

*1945* LET 28 November /Stewart MacLeod to S. Morley Scott/ jan17 D.P. Pandia has been in Trinidad. 1943 Indai Office refused to allow him a permit to go to Cda. 1944, also refused. 1945: what about now?

*1941* May /List of Newly Registered Men wishing to bring families/ jan16 43 in all, a list from Ms. Chrang.

*1938* /Dominion Elections Act/

*1939* /Provincial Elections Act, BC Ch.16, Sect.5a/ Specifically bans H. vote. Also Municipal vote, law, pharmacy, pub.works, logging licenses, sale of crown timber.

*1939* /BC Prov. Election Act, Ch.16, Sect.5a/ mar-- Bans H. from provincial vote. Sel "Jan17", Aug. 10, 1945.

*1937* Times 21 September /Lahab S. cremated. Widow lit fires/

*1935* /Vote/ First came to Legislature in 1935. Member for Peace River (Clive Planta, Lib.) wanted a motion against. H. Winch (CCF) against.

*1939* VP 4 April /First wedding/ p.5 First wedding ceremony in Van. Itajara S. of Duncan. In a Garage. Celebrations from Sunday night to Wednesday morning.

*1946* 30 March /From an Informer/ jan17 Gives names etc. of 7 illegals. Claims there are about 75.

*1943* Sun 19 January /3 Sikhs Celebrating, with pictures/ p.1 jan16 3 Sikhs celebrating the anniversary of Guru Gobind S. Ngindar S. Gill, Narajan S. and Dedar S. all of KDS Van.

*1944* LET 27 June /Principal A.A. Scott, Indore Xtian College, to Jolliffe/ jan17 Re: previous visit, color discrimination is not allowed. 1943 reciprocity Bill in India could have trade repercussions.

*1945* LET 19 February /M.R. Ahuja, India Gov. Trade Commissioner, Toronto to Jolliffe/ jan17 Request information on prior immigration. Reply: 1465 in 1941.

*1941* /Census/ 1465, 1059 male. 48 in Alta., 29 in P.Q., Half are rural. 424 born in Cda.

*1944* N.S.Gill, Ed. /S. Voice/ Pallmall cafe on West Hastings Street, agrees to serve South Asians due to KDS intervention.

*1941* /Census/ 1465 in Cda. 1345 in B.C.

*1942* LET 29 April /Blair to Sripa Chandra Sekhar/ jan16 1900-20: 5351. 1920-30: 422. 1930-42: 338. Total: 6111.

*1945* 10 August /Memo for Under-Sec. of State for Ext. Affairs, re: East Indians/ jan17 Notes colonial office is concerned (p.2) as Cdn. citizen equals British subject with 5 year domicile. Hence most are Canadian citizens. P.C. 2115, Order in Council, 16 Sept. 1930: Prhibits all Asiatic immigrants except those with special treaty, and wives and children. Dominion Elections Act, 1938:Those who did not fight in WWI are barred from Prov. rolls and cannot vote. (Not drafted re: special food requirements). Prov. Elections Act, 1939: Specifically bans H. vote. Similarly Municipal Vote, Public School Board, Juries, law, pharmacy, Public works, hard logging licenses, sale of crown timber. 1941 Census: total- 1465, 1059 males. 48 in Alta., 29 in Quebec, half rural. 424 born in Cda. Chart: Immigration population by year of immigration. Copy.

*1941* - *1942* /H. Polak visits re: Vote/ Jan. 3, 1942, Mackenzie King again agrees to vote but does nothing. (Holland, p.170)

*1940* /Wage differentials finally ended for Asians, a little earlier for S.A.'s/

*1942 LET 21 February /H.L. Keensleyside to H. Polak/ Writes that Mackenzie King will not consider the vote in light of the Japanese evacuation.

*1940* RG25 V804 #561 /India-Dominion States/ 1. Memo to PM on East Indians vote about 1940: a.vote is not practically needed. b.some sentiment in BC for it. c. difficulty: Ch. and J. vote. d.eventually must give vote as all of North America is going this way. e.PM King approves asking BC gov. to make the gesture based on Indian participation in the war. f.would make High Commissioner's life in India much easier. Memo to PM, Dec.26, 1941 on a High Commissioner for India: Cda. can have a good effect as India moves to self-government, especially as Brit. and US are suspect. A high commission would be good. Tentative approval came June 3, 1942 from King. Letter to Asst. Sec. to PM, June 10 1925: In Sept. 1922 PM King promised V.S. Sastri the vote would be considered when new law was created. Now making good. Committee of the House under Mr. Archambault does nothing.

*1943* Sun 3 March /Premiere John Hart Ponders the Franchise/ jan17 Delegation to Hart: 12 people including Harold P. Prichett Pres. of IW of A., Sir Robert Holland, Harold Winch (leader of CCF) and Naginda S. Gill.

*1943* VDT 18 January /RE: Sikh celebration at Tupaz St./ jan16 Celebrating Gobad S., wish vote.

*1943* 2 March /See "vote". Phangan S. and G.S. Badall are enlisted/

*1943* Sun 22 May /The Sikhs of BC by Patterson Gregory/ ajn17 Pictures of 2nd St. temple, and alter. Very favorable coverage. Mentions Sikh ranches near Calgary.

*1942* LET 12 January /H. Winch to H. Polak/ Supports vote. In KDS 1947.

*1944* Smith /Facts/ p.359,362-3 400 out of 2000 are women. Notes Barnett Mills, Kapoor Mills, Mayo Mills in Duncan. 5 percent total capital in lumber in Sikh hands. Only 3 Sikhs married non-Sikhs in 40 years. No Sikh women married whites. 6 temples and little discrimination especially regarding children.

*1944* /Estimates 5 percent of capital in BC lumber is in Sikh hands.

*1944* /Khalsa School Club, Vic. Secretary: Gurdev Kaur/

*1943* VDT 2 March /Delegation to Hart/ jan17 Included: Baboo S., (vet of WWI), Phangan S. and G.S. Badall in Cdn. Army.

*1940* 19 January /Communication to Taylor/ jan16 3 "giccs" registered in Toronto.

*1942* RG 27 V1486 2-153-1 /Vote/ 1.Petition KDS Maranjan S. and Najundar S. Oct.1, 1942 to Gov. of BC. During Feb. 1942 HSL Polak interviewed King. King said npo. John Hart said no too. Press issue: re: war.

*1943* 12 March /Draft/ RG27 V130 601.3-4 N.A. Robertson, Under Sec. State for Ext. Affairs to A MAcNamara, Dep. Minister of Labour. Has spoken to PM and Ministers of National Defense matter still in progress. None have yet been called up.

*1943* S.S. Dhami /Elmore Philpott, Ed.-Director of V. News-Herald/ pp.? In editorial suggests no vote, no war. Nagindar S. Gill, Secretary of Van. KDS.

*1943* 7 October /Major Gill of Toronto called up/ RG27 V999 2-114-27 This settled it: He was not actually inducted.

*1944* VDT 9 March /Labour Minister G.S. Pearson spoke against Franchise/ jan17 "Broke every regulation" etc. Larua Jamieson, CCF Van. Centre, supported it. Sun newspaper, same date: "unreliable, deceitful, dishonest". Pearson's remarks sparked a Van. delegation to go see him (Sun, Mar.13,1944). Debate Mar.15 still re: standards of living etc.

*1944* /Sikh Voice #3/ Attorney Gen. R.L. Maitland told the KDS that he would not support the vote. Were supported by Harold Prichett, District Pres. of IWA (CIO).

*1943* LET 29 March /F.C. Blair, Director, to Rev. A.F. Armstrong, United Church of Cda., Board of Foreign Ministries, Toronto/ jan17 Confidential: Request is "Untimely and dangerous" to ask India would be to open the door re: the vote. Perhaps BC will. Other questions of immigration: no. Armstrong April 7, is afraid re: status of Church in Independent India. Will visit. Blair memo to file: notes same.

*1944* /Hazara Singh Gurdha/ MA was a rep. for the Van. KDS. He and Nadindar S. Gill toured all large East Indian centres re: franchise to get information on what people were up to.

*1944* /Sikh Voice #3/ Nagindar S. Gill suggests a coalition of minority groups.

*1943* LET 8 March /A. MacNamara to N.A. Robertson/ RG27 V130 C. J. and H. would be a headache. How about alternative service or with regard to H.'s -postponement of service because of their useful work. 50 have been called for a medical. He thinks they do "essential war work". Fe.15 1943: N.A. Robertson to Dep. Minister of Labour: C. and J. are exempted. East Indians need a policy statement. Feb.8 MacNamara to Robertson: locals protest doing service without the vote. E. Bind, Soliciter to Minister of Labour, Jan.22, 1943: States objections: 25 have been called.

*1944* /KDS Get Letter of Support/ Support for franchise from BC Provincial Command of the Cdn. Legion.

*1944* Sun 2 November /H. Winch Supports Vote/ jan17

*1944* 15 November /Sikh Voice #1/ p.1 Oct.22, 1944 Harold Winch spoke in the Van. temple.

*1944* /$500,000 War Bonds Subscribed by Sikhs/

*1943* July /Blair Retires/ jan17 Acting Commissioner: C.R.S. Smith. A.L. Jolliffe: Acting Director.

*1944* LET 3 November /Nagindar S. Gill to Commissioner KDS, Van./ War stopped all India Canada passports. What now about wives and children who are now over 18 years? Reply (Nov.27): All immigrants will be decided at war's end.

*1944* /Concern re: Children now over 18 and still overseas/

*1946* LET 27 August /Acting Director to Mr. Glen/ jan17 OK to let in overdue minors? (About 20)?

*1947* 30 April /One more year's grace re: Children in India/ jan17

*1947* LET 4 December /F. Taylor to the Commissioner Ottawa/ jan18 Again, a problem with minority children who could not get here due to lack of transport. <End Box 5 111>

*1947* 4 April /Mr. Kearney is High Commissioner for Cda. in India/ jan17

*1946* LET 27 November /Pandia to Jolliffe/ jan17 Re: thanks for meeting of previous month.

*1946* 1 September /Interim Indian Gov./

*1947* 15 August /Indian Indpendence/

*1946* 31 October and 1 November /Who is attending meetings/ Kapoor S., Kartar S., Mayo S., Ishar S., Gurdit S., Nagindar S., Pandia.

*1946* Lowes Oct-Nov /Local Sikhs meet with BC Elections Act Committee/

*1947* LET 27 May /District Super. Van. to Commissioner/ jan17 Sorain S. has a long file going back to 1919 KDS president, several times including up to 3 years ago.

*1947* /Information/ Doaba is North West of Sotlej. Jillender Hoshipur Malwa Ludhiana

*1947* Bains /Sikh Festivals/ Basakhi, wheat harvest. Savani begins rainy season. Lohrhi, mid-winter. Bansant begins spring.

*1949* Indian Affairs 1(9) /Indians in Canada. (nothing here)/ jan19

*1947* LET 13 May /India Progressive Society to Commissioner/ jan17 Telegram: Pandia is a fraud. They will collect information. Pandia is a leach on people. Sorain S.

*1947* LET /Nand S., Pres. New Westminster KDS to Commissioner/ jan17 Pandia illegitimate. We speak for people.

*1940* - *1950* /Name changes/ Of 188: 8 used village, 135 lineage names, 13 Singh, 2 father's name.

*1945* /Fraser Mills temple torn down, because none working there/

*1947* /Harnam S. Pres. Vic. KDS. Sundar S. is secretary/

*1946* /P. Kodanda Rao, Servants of India Society/ He visited and spoke regarding the vote.

*1946* September /D.P. Pandia returned from Central and South America/

*1946* Andraki 1958 /Resolution condemning treatment of Indians in South America at U.N./ p.198 Canada did not support resolution.

*1946* 9 December /Pandia and J./ jan17 Notes that Cdn. trade with India is No.3 after US and Britain.

*1946* 21 December /Interim Report re: KDS Affairs, D.P. Pandia/ jan17 He has mediated disputes which involved many court cases and the 1946 KDS election. Gurdit S. was elected. Nagindar S., Secretary 1941-5 charged with irregular use of funds.

*1947* VDC 6 February /J. Nehru intervenes in Ottawa re: votes/ p.1

*1935* - *1945* - *1946* -*1947* /Vote History/ jan18 1935: MP Clive Planta (Peace River) attempts to motion affirming anti-Asian vote. Harold Winch (CCF Van. East) challenges. 1945 CCF brought forward. 1946 Mr. P. Kodandra Rao of Servants of India Society visits BC. April 2, 1947 Bill 85. Note: Harnam S. president, Sundar S. is secretary. Many representations made by H.S. Polak in 1942. Winch affirms support in 1942. Keensleyside to Polak: King will not send representative due to anti-Japanese sentiment.

*1949* /Public works contract clause dropped in BC in 1949/

*1947* March /Bill 85 to Ammend Sec. 5a of Elections Act/ Re: Chinese and South Asians: 1st reading passed. 2nd ammended re: knowledge of English or French. 3rd passed April 2, 1947.

*1947* 16 September /Union of BC Municipalities/ jan18 They OK a change in Municipalities Act re: vote.

*1947* 23 October /Meeting of Union of BC Municipalities/ At Harrison Hot Springs. Mayor of Van. moved that this provided ONLY for H. votes and NOT for Vancouver. On Oct.23 the Van. Incorporation Act was changed.

*1947* 16 September /Union of BC Municipalities/ mar-- OK a change in act re: Municipal vote.

*1947* /Statutes of BC, Ch.28 re: East Indians and Chinese vote/

*1947* 19 February /Ext. Affairs Memo/ jan17 Even with vote, Ext. Affairs willkeep track of outward bound H.

*1947* /Re: Illegals, see correspondence in KDS, 1947/

*1948* LET 16 March /Pandia to Keensleyside/ jan18 80 percent in lumber, 20 percent in farming. 335 have independent business, 130 fuel merchants, 29 sawmill owners, 10 logging operations, 75 farming. 200 families own houses. Rent out another 102. 1947 est. population: 1394.

*1946* /BC Dept. of Labour on South Asians/ 3 laundry, 492 lumber, 3 metal, 1 mining, 20 misc. trades, 2 printing and publishing, 3 pulp and paper, 6 coast shipping, 7 food production, 3 shipbuilding, 18 wood mfg. 575 out of total 121,000 in work force.

*1946* LET /John Kearney (Cdn. High Comm. in India) to Sec. State Ext. Affairs/ jan18 Argues inclusion of India in commonwealth list.

*1946* LET 18 January /Mr. Ahujas, India Gov. Trade Comm. Toronto, to N.A. Robertson, Under Sec. of State Ext. Affairs/ jan18 Visited re: Cdn. Nationality Bill No.20 re: Hindus. If born here: citizens, if legal domicile: citizens. Still vote debarred by Elections Act of 1936. India not mentioned on Commonwealth list which could have meant NOT British subjects while in Cda.

*1949* LET 28 October /High Comm. for India S.K. Kirpalani, to Dr. Keensleyside/ jan19 Requests that wives and children of those 18 years old unable to come here during the war be allowed in. He has 26 applications to date. Reply: Nov. 21 Will admit.

*1950*- *1960* /Gudwaras/ Used as a "hotel" even by non-Sikhs.

*1953* Monday 1958 /Discrimination and Ethnocentrism/ p.38-39 Private schools did not accept. Many leave school very early. 6 at UBC in 1952-3 (2 women). Parents feared acculturative effects of schools.

*1953* /Discrimination: Women and Employment at Eaton's and Hudson's Bay Co./

*1946* /S.A. in the US: allowed citizenship/

*1946* 2 July /Indian Immigration-Naturalization Bill/ US bill, had 100 quota yearly.

*1947* LET 3 MArch /Petition KDS, Van. to J.A. Glen, Minister of Mines and Resources/ jan17 1. Immigration policy conflicts with UN charter. 2. Will affect trade relations with India. 3. It is racist. 4. Purchased $446,730 in victory bonds. 5. Not taken seriously.

*1947* LET 16 May /G.L. Magann, Cdn. Embassy, Wash. to Escott Reid, Ext. Affairs/ ajn17 1. B.R. Sen, Indian mininster in Wash. called re H. in Cda. 2. Reason for 1. was Pandia talking to Washington Indian delegation. 3. Sen wants discussion re: token quota of immigrants from India.

*1947* LET /Escott Reid, Dept. Ext. Affairs, to G.L. Magann, Cdn. Embassy Wash./ jan17 Confidential: 1. Don't talk quota unless asked. If asked, say it is being discussed.

*1947* LET August /Several letters from C. Pearson, S.S. for Ext. Affairs to High Commissioner/ jan18 Confidential: Don't press question of India and Partition. It is OK if they press it.

*1948* LET 5 January /H.L. Keensleyside, Dept. Minister to Under Sec. of State, Ext. Affairs/ jan18 No change in India immigration regulations is forthcoming.

*1947* LET 16 June /Pandia to Jolliffe/ jan17 Has list of illegals and families. 7 married Cdn. womn. 10 married Cdn. born Sikh women and others. 98 have families overseas. Complete list including villages and districts.

*1947* LET 18 June /Nagindar S. Gill, Ottawa to Commissioner/ jan17 Also with a list signed by Nand S. pres. of New Westminster KDS and Lal S. Pres. Fraser Mills KDS. Sohan S. Pres. India Youth League.

*1947* LET 12 July /Acting Director to Dep. Minister/ jan17 Suggests fovaorable action re: wives and children. D.N. McDonnell is District Super in Pacific District.

*1947* LET 22 April /Lesster B. Pearson, Under Sec. State for Ext. Affairs to Dr. Keensleyside, Dep. Minister Mines and Resources/ jan17 Re: Why no passports to those illegals of 1939? Keensleyside agrees April 25, 1947.

*1947* LET 24 December /Kartar S., Sec. KDS Vic., to F. Taylor/ jan18 Plea for Gaffen Khan (arrived 1939) to be a legal immigrant.

*1947* LET 27 April /Vic. KDS to Jolliffe/ jan17 Sending Pandia to act in behalf of the illegals and their requests re: children April 28, Van. KDS concedes.

*1948* LET 29 January /F. Taylor to Commissioner/ jan18 Some really wealthy South Asians want to return to India but want relatives to come over and farm their land. Is it possible?

*1948* LET 8 April /Confidential Draft Ottawa to High Commissioner India/ jan18 Anglo-Indians are a problem: Paternal European means they are European - then what.

*1948* LET 10 February /Acting High Commissioner N. Delhi to Sec. State Ext. Affairs/ jan18 In code: Are not allowing mixed people to immigrate. Don't want exceptions. But: Indian wife of a European is OK!

*1947* LET 23 August /Acting Director to Mr. Jackson/ jan18 Re: Citizenship Bill, allowing Indian in list schedule might place them under PC 695 which allow Brit. subjects on list entry into Cda.

*1948* LET 28 February /Pandia to Keensleyside/ jan18 Still attempting to loosening of regulations.

*1948* LET 28 February /PAndia to Kensleyside/jan18 Review immigration laws.

*1948* LET 21 April /Commissioner of Overseas Service to Under Sec. of State for Ext. Affairs/ jan18 p.2 Even shites, Brit. subjects born in Indai cannot immigrate without waiving PC4849 every time.

*1948* LET 27 May /John Kearney, High Comm. for India to Sec. State for Ext. Affairs/ jan18 Talked to Sir Girja Bajpai. Nehru is uncerain about how to play the commonwealth issue. Sir G. suggest Cdn. immigration changes would make his life easier. US had made a 100 quota earlier. He suggests a 100 person quota as an Order in Council immediatey.

*1948* 29 May /Case of 15 East Indians Held at KH due to Trachoma/ jan18 High commissioner also pressures.

*1948* 18 May /Memo on East Indian Immigration/ jan18 Abstracts Pandia's arguments. Problem: others Asians, first degree East Indians would not hurt. So recommend agaisnt removal. Could waive PC2115 in hardship cases.

*1948* 18 June /Memo for File/ jan18 1. Cabinet committee on Immigration met on 16th. 2. Decision held in abeyance. 3. Will consider applications. 4. Male fiances. 5. Relatives of businessmen. Communicated to Indian High Comm. on June 25.

*1949* LET 23 March /F. Taylor to Commissioner/ jan19 Mr. Malik asks if made finaces can have their potential brides come to Cda. first. Reply, April 14, 1949: OK.

*1949* LET 12 February /High Commissioner for India to Ottawa/ jan19 Indian commerce minister complains of Cdn. immigration restrictions.

*1949* ET 29 June /F. Taylor to Commissioner / jan19 A Cdn. born H. girl wants to bring in her husband and DAUGHTER. Reply Aug. 25, 1949: OK.

*1947* LET 23 September /John Kearney to Nehru, Minister of Commonwealth Relations/ jan18 1. Will allow visa approval in New Dehli. All information will go through there. 2. May also grant immigrant visas.

*1947* Nasenko, 1977 31 March /Leo Tolstoy's "Letter to a Hindu"/ p.67-8 Read on March 31 by one assembly member opposed to Commonwealth status.]

*1949 27 April /Speech by St. Laurent to House of Commons/ jan19 Re: India and Commonwealth. 1. Primes ministers of UK, Australia, NZ, SA, India, Pakistan Ceylon and Cdn. Sec. State for Ext. Affairs met in London last week. 2. India will be a republic in the Commonwealth.

*1948* LET 11 MAy /Commissioner, Overseas Service to Jolliffe/ jan18 High Comm. for Indai wanrned that Indai will press question. Perhaps Mr. Pandia's options are better. May 17, 1848, Pandia to Jolliffe from Chateau Laurier: He and Mr. Malik are putting on pressure.

*1949* LET 27 August /Acting High Comm. to A. Jolliffe/ jan19 Pandia has visited New Delhi office re: immigration question.

*1949* LET 21 July /A.D.P. Heeney Under Sec. State for Ext. Affairs to Jolliffe, Director of Immigration/ jan19 Suggests West Punjab applications be sent through Cdn. gov. Trade Comm. in Karadie.

*1949* LET 10 May /High COmmissioner for India to Sec. State for Ext. Affairs/ jan19 Inda has passed a law prohibiting immigration from Pakistan.

*1950* Hawkins, 1972 /Creation of C. and I./ p.89

*1946*- *1966* /Post-War Immigration of South Asians/ 1946-55: 1193. '56-'63: 5490. '64:2077. '65:3491. '66:4094. Total: 16,345

*1951* 1 January /Quotas/ apr-- 150 Indians, 100 Pakistanis, 50 Celonese.

*1957* /Cda. -India Immigration Agreement/ Raised the quota of Indians to 300. Priorities to: Fiances, married children of Cdn. citizen and families, father, mother, grandparents, unmarried brothers and sisters in family, and more distant relatives. Ther preference quota applies to only half of the 300.

*1952* /Immigration Act/ R.S.C. Ch.325 Did not change Asian discrimination.

*1953* /Conflict and split between the old and younger newcomers/

*1950* - *1959* /Swamping of pioneers and the 2nd generation by immigrants/

*1952* /Ikbal Sara/ First to be admitted to BC Bar Association.

*1952* Lowes /Orthodox and Unorthodox Split/ p.41

*1953* Munday /S. Conditions in 1953/

*1953* Munday /Women Interns (The Sidoo sisters?)/ p.43

*1950* /Farming in Fraser Valley/ About 16 new farms. 10-20 acres, non-dairy, vegetables and berries. 5 large farms from the '20's. 4 of these run large trucking businesses.

*1950* /Temple Affairs/ A Bhog held of Sunday about two per month. 2nd Ave. and N. Westminster did not overlap because 2nd Ave. celebrates Mewa S. on March, Gobind S. in Dec.-Jan. New Westminster 5th Guru Arjan, and Abbotsford Guru Nanak.

*1953* Munday /Women/ p.30 Very isolated from Cdns. Almost none work. Most did not speak English, but understood it.

*1953* Munday /Almost no S. A. live in apartments/ p.16

*1957* /Vancouver/ Most from Doaba (Jullendur and Hoshiarpur). New Westminster and Mission from Malwa, (Ludhiana).

*1952* /Temple Split/ Akali Society split to become another Akali in Victoria, and a Singh temple on 11th Ave.

*195?* Lowes /Kartar S. notes most orthodox pioneers are stuck in the early 20th Century/ p.37

*1953* LET 10 December /Pacific Director, Van. to Director/ jan22 1. From July 24, 1924 have been registering out H. Would like to discontinue it. Wrote 2 more letters. By Feb.8, 1959, still no answer.

*1957* Mayer /Religious Split in Vancouver/ p.7 Majority: Khalsa was only for the times. Baptism is not necessary. Older men disagree. Immigrants put Kakka aside with mixed feelings. Leads to reduction in other proscriptions.

*1957* Mayer /East Indian Welfar Society/ p.11 Created pre-1957 to show a united front to government.

*1952* Corbett /KDS/ p.29-31 KDS made brief re: Equal immigration rights, especially sponsorships. Debate on July 4, 1952 6 members of 12 asked for KDS request. 150 already agreed to by gov. Request failed.

*1952* D.H.C. 4 July /Established a quota/ p.4270 For Indians 150, Pakistanis 100, Ceylonese 50. Also dependent children, and parents of a citizen. Made in Statement of the Minister of C. and I. India was subsequently increased to 300.

*1951* /Census/ 2148 in Cda., 1937 in BC (639 female).

*1957* Mayer /Numbers/ p.5 About 4000, 3000 in BC. 1500-2000 in Lower Mainland.

*1957* /Community Organisations/

*1957* /Class/ By this time incipient class stratification.

*1957* Mayer /Sikh Caste/ p.16 4 of 5 are Jats. Rajputs from northern areas are influential. Only one intercaste marriage found. They were both Cdn. born.

*1957* Mayer /An Immigration Split/ p.3 Preference quota relatives to BC. Technicians (Professionals) to the East: Toronto and Montreal.

*1957* /Hindus and Moslems in Van./ About 50-75 people. Both come to temple for marriage and funeral rites.

*1950* Mayer 1957 /Already no geographical social community/ p.5

*1957* Corbett /Immigration Office in India/ p.181 Office opened with a staff of 12. There were 20,000 applications when the office opened.

*1969* d /Background/ p.146-7, 153 apr-- New Temple: Has resident priest. KDS has 25 members of executive committee. Also Gujarati Society of BC. H.H. Aga Khan Ismaili Community.d India-Cda. Friendship Assoc. Zoroastrians.

*1980* Globe and Mail 20 May /Flag stolen from top of Shironai Sikh temple/ p.5

*1974* /Toronto Transit Commission pressured to accept Sikhs with beards and turbans/ apr--

*1981* Toronto Star 4 June /"$1200 Scam brings 'Refugee' Sikhs to Metro"/ Mostly "poor Sikh farmers".

*1981* Toronto Star 3 June /"2000 Sikhs Flood City in 2 Months"/

*1981* India Abroad N.Y. 12 June /NACOI Study of S.A. in Lower Mainland/ Vol.XI (37) p.1 77 percent at or above provincial average. 75 percent owned homes. 9 percent duplexes. 1 percent appartments. 15 percent rented. .2 percent on welfare. 3.1 percent ever took UIC up to 3 months. 87 percent students did not experience racial discrimination. 603 families surveyed, 2509 people surveyed.

*1973* June/August /Indira Gandhi visits/ Formal reception 20 June in Royal York Hotel. Toronto.

*1977* Toronto Star 22 January /Ranvir Sharda/ Council for Racial Harmony opened 24 hour hot line five months ago. Received 200 complaints so far.

*1980* Toronto Star 17 May /Man, Wife and 2 Children Attacked/ They were attacked in the elevator of their apartment high-rise. 10 youths involved. 3 charged (in Rexdale) then 3 others, finally all charged.

*1977* 6 November /Demonstration/ Aobut 2000 demonstrated against racism in Toronto. Most are Sikhs and South Asian People's Association. By then EIDC discredited-- stages counter-demonstration.

*1975* Summer /Demonstration/ About 1000 Sikhs in Toronto demonstrated this summer at city hall re: need of police protection against vandalism.

*1980* Globe and Mail 19 May /S.A. Groups Boycott/ S.A Grous will boycott Ontario Human Rights commission. Will start a hot-line.

*1976* Calgary Herald 23 October /Race Row Ends/ CPR quickly closing camp in Daysland Alta. 30 East Indians and whites with axe handles.

*1970* /Criminal Code/ Sec.281.2 Subsec.1 Inciting race hatred is illegal. Up to 2 years in jail.

*1977* Calgary Report 23 September /Saint John's/ Last week 2 Sikh youths at home were taunted by 4 men in truck and car. Others arrived and beat two of them.

*1976* Calgary Herald 22 October /Daysland Riot/

*1977* Globe and Mail 9 July /Hindu Prarthana Samaj Vandalised/ "Paki Go Home". Once a tire thrown through door. Another time shoes thrown out.

*1980* Toronto Star 14 November /"Pakistani Youth learns ring skills to end torment"/ Asif Karmam Dar becomes Cdn. bantam-weight champ at 14 years.

*1975* Toronto Star 13 March /"Embattled Sikh Leaders Order Temple Padlocked"/ Shiromani Sikh Society begun after a "knife and club-wielding battle" which put 12 Sikhs in hospital. Started 1970.

*1975* Toronto Star 10 May /12 Stabbed, Beaten, As Sikhs Battle in Metro Temple/ Shiromani Sikh Society on Pope Ave. 8 charged, 14 cruisers to scene.

*1976* Rosenstock and Adair /Poem in Ontario - version/ p.12

*1973* Globe and Mail 28 July /Fort St. James: Clashes between Sikhs and Indians/

*1970's* /Gurmukli classes for children/

*1973* C /Sikhs in Vancouver/ apr-- About 1200 families. 5.5 people per family.

*1970's* /Van. KDS Sees itself as overseer of others/ p.158-161 apr-- Like: Shiromani Gudwara Prapandar Committee. Mean length of time in Cda. for executive committee: 25 years. 23 of 25 from Doaba. 2 from Malwa. Most were professionals.

*1976* Toronto Star 14 April /Ronald Ryan, Age 21, Charged with murder of Michael Habbib age 15/ Friend claimed he shot 2 blacks in January. "I just shot the nigger, for everyone you shoot, you leave a white girl with a broken heart".

*1977* C /Sikhs/ p.61,77,97 apr-- 40 percent live in rental housing. Argues that professionals do not have a high identification with community. Conflict between brothers over father's estate frequently led to dissolution of businesses, mills, trucking operations, etc.

*1972* - *1973* C /Sikhs and Lumber Mills/ p.53-56 apr-- About 2000 are working in Van. area. 7 percent of total mill labour rouce. 5 area mills onwed by Sikhs about 60 percent adult males work in lumber and related fields. 70 percent of mills had no East Indian workers.

*1952* - *1973* /Akali Singh Society, 449 E. 11th Ave./ apr-- Arose in 1952, ostensibly over dispute re: Kakka S. In 1972 Municipal Elections a Sikh was elected Alderman (TEAM) . Endogamous marriages: most Sikhs are Doaba.

*1975* Calgary Herald 4 March /In 1974 46 out of 72 racial complaints in Calgary Human Rights office were native people

*1970's* /Committe of South Asians in Calgary, Organized by Titus Matthews/

*1976* 27-29 August /NACOI: Conference, Ottawa. Ranjit Hall convenor/

*1977* /New Immigration Act/ Aug.5, 1977 Royal Assent. Apr. 10, 1978 into effect.

*1979* VDT 26 October /Misty's Cabaret/ Cabaret found guilty of discrimination against blacks. First charge to stick. Fined $3780.

Note: Re: changing political panorama, that Indians were sprinkled across the world, previously barred.

*1974* Hess /US Immigration / p.577 1946-65: 6000. 1966-72: 50,990.

*1962* /Regulations: removed race, except as regards range of relatives/

*Pre-1937* /A Sikh was elected Mayor of Mission/

*1909* /Harnam Singh arrived 1909/ Ringsland-Turner Sidney District: raised pigs by 1921. In De Winton, Alta. Some came in 1919, returned to India.

*1966* - *1975* /Bangladeshi Immigration/ About 28 percent in 1966-70. About 52 percent in 1971-5.

*1958* /India-Canada Assoc., Ottawa/ Started by Gov. civil servants.

 

Bibliography on South Asians in Canada

This bibliography may be used in any way the reader pleases, as long as its use is conventionally referenced

 

Adams, B. @i<et al>  1977 Ugandan Asians in Exile: Household and Kinship in the Resettlement  Crisis. J. Comparative Family Studies 8(2): 167+178.

Ahluwahlia, M. and Kirpal Singh  1963 The Punjab's Pioneer Freedom Fighters. Bombay: Orient Longmans.

Ahmad, S.M.  1982 Psychological Barriers in Adaptation to a Multicultural Society.  @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Asian Canadians:  Regional Perspectives. pp.316+328.

Ahmed, Mahbub  1978 Adaptations of Bangladeshis in Canada: A Case Study of Toronto.  Paper presented at a seminar on "Social and Cultural Integration  of Bangladeshis" at Carleton University. Mimeo 23pp.

Akoodie, M.A.  1980 Immigrant Students: A Comparative Assessment of Ethnic Identity, Self  Concept and Locus of Control Amongst West Indian, East Indian and  Canadian Students. D. Phil. Dissertation, Educational Theory,  University of Toronto.

America+India Samachar  1910 Hira Singh, ed., Vancouver.

Ames, Michael M. and Joy Inglis  1968 Indian Immigrants in Canada. Indo+Canadian 3 (4): 2+6.

Ames, Michael M. and Joy Inglis  1973 Conflict and Change in British Columbia Sikh Family Life.  B.C. Studies 20 (Winter): 15+49.

Andracki, Stanislaw  1958 The Immigration of Orientals into Canada with Special Reference to  Chinese. Ph.D. Dissertation, History Department, McGill University.  (Reprinted in 1978, New York: Arno Press).

Angus H.F.  1931 Under+Privileged Canadians. Queens Quarterly, 38: 445+460.

Angus H.F.  1937 The Legal Status in British Columbia of Residents of Oriental  Race and their Descendents. @UN(In) N.A.M. Mackenzie, ed.,  The Legal Status of Aliens in Pacific Countries. London:  Oxford University  Press. pp.77+87.

Angus H.F.  1941 The Effect of the War on Oriental Minorities in Canada. Canadian  Journal of Economics and Political Science 7(4): 506+516.

Angus H.F.  1946 Asiatics in Canada. Pacific Affairs 19(4): 402+408.

Angus H.F.  1947 East Indians in Canada. International Journal 2(1): 47+50.

Angus H.F.  1953 Asian Minorities in Canada. United Asia 5(5): 281+285.

Angus H.F.  1970 People of East Indian Origin. Encyclopedia Canadiana 3: 331+2.

Angus H.F.  ++++ Canada and the Far East 1940+1953.

Angus, H.F.  1931 The Legal Status in British Columbia of Residents of Oriental  Race and Their Descendents. Canadian Bar Review, 9 (1): 1+12.

Anonymous  1907 Race Riots on the Pacific Coast. Outlook 87: 89.

Anonymous  1908 The Hindu in America. American Review of Reviews 37: 604+605.

Anonymous  1912 The Position of Hindus in Canada. British Columbia Magazine  8: 664+668.

Anonymous  1913 Hindu Grievances in Canada. Open Court 27: 703+704.

Anonymous  1914a A Contemporary Description of the Komogata Maru Incident. Canadian  Annual Review, Toronto. pp.115+119.

Anonymous  1914b Canada's Rejection of the Hindu. The Literary Digest  49 (August 8): 226.

Anonymous  1914c Sikhs Besieging Canada. The Literary Digest 49 (July 18): 95+96.

Anonymous  1914d Veto of Canada. Living Age 282: 310+312.

Anonymous  1923a Asiatic Immigration into Canada. Round Table (March): 398+404.

Anonymous  1923b Indian Rights in the United States. Nation 117: 447.

Anonymous  1934 Strange Gods come to Canada. Macleans Magazine 47(11): 44+45.

Appathuri, E.R.  1980 The Sri Lankans in Eastern Canada. Secretary of State, Ottawa. Mimeo.

Aryan  1911+1912 Volumes 1 (1) to 2 (9). Sundar Singh  ed., Vancouver.

Ashworth, M.  1978 The Segregation of Immigrant Children in British Columbia  Schools. Working Teacher 1(3).

Awan, Sadiq  1975 A Study of the Problems Associated with the Education of the People  of Pakistani Origin in Canada, 1947+1970. M.A. Thesis,  Bishop's University.

Awan, Sadiq  1976 The People of Pakistani Origin in Canada. Ottawa: Canada+Pakistani  Association of Ottawa+Hull.

Awan, Sadiq  1980 The People of Pakistani Origin in Canada, Their First Twenty+Five  Years. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Visible  Minorities and Multiculturalism. Toronto: Butterworths.

Awan, Sadiq, ed.  1976b Proceedings of the First National Multicultural Symposium Organized  by the Canada+Pakistani Association of Ottawa+Hull. Ottawa: mimeo.

Bagai, Leona B.  1967 The East Indians and Pakistanis in America. Minneapolis: Lerner  Publishing Co.

Bains, Nina  1974 A Brief Study of the East Indian (Sikh) Community of Victoria.  Victoria: mimeo. 30pp.

Bannerjee, Kalyan Kumar  1964 East Indian Immigration into America: Beginnings of Indian  Revolutionary Activity. Modern Review 116: 355+356.

Bannerjee, Kalyan Kumar  1969 Indian Freedom Movement: Revolutionaries In America. Calcutta:  Jijnasa.

Bannerjee, Nipa  1977 Students from India in Canadian Universities. Ph.D. Dissertation,  University of Toronto.

Basran, Gurcharn S.  1976 University Research on East Indian+Canadians: A Preliminary  Checklist. Canadian Ethnic Studies. 5(1+2): 41+46.

Beck, Brenda  1981 The Use of Metaphor in Ethnic Research: Variations in the  Concept of Ethnicity. Paper for CESA Conference.

Beck, Brenda  1982 Perceptions des relations parentales entre parent et enfant chez  des immigrants au Canada:Variations selon qu'ils proviennent  d'Inde, du Japon et de Hongrie. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G.  Hirabayashi, eds., Asian Canadians: Regional Perspectives.  pp.207+221.

Beck, Brenda  1983a Bread Crumbs or Yeast: Indo+Canadian Popular Culture and its Growth  Potential. University of British Columbia.

Beck, Brenda  1983b Immigrants, Metaphors and Shifting Cultural Frameworks. Typescript.  23pp.

Beck, Brenda  1987 Bread Crumbs or Yeast: Indo+Canadian Popular Culture and its Growth  Potential. @b(In) M. Israel, ed. The South Asian Diaspora in  Canada. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, pp. 59+72.

Berry, John, @i<et al>  1977 Multiculturalism and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada. Ottawa:  Information Canada.

Bhargava, Gura  1984 Advertised Mate Choices of South Asian Immigrants in North America:  A Study of Changing Ethnic Identity. Canadian Sociology and  Anthropology Association 19th Annual Meetings.

Bhatti, Bonnie  1979 A Research Study: A Comparison of the Levels of Differentiation of  Self in East Indian and non+East Indians. M.A. Thesis, School of  Social Work, University of British Columbia.

Bhatti, F.M.  1974 East Indian Immigration into Canada: 1905+1973. Ph.D. Dissertation.  University of Surrey.

Bhatti, F.M.  1980 A Comparative Study of British and Canadian Experience with South  Asian Immigration. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds.,  Visible Minorities and Multiculturalism. Toronto: Butterworths's.  pp.43+63.

Blaise, Clark  1987 The Sorrow and the Terror: The Haunting Legacy of the Air India  Disaster. Markham, Ont.: Viking Press (evidently also out in  Penguin).

Bogardus, Emory S.  1928 Immigration and Race Attitudes. New York: D.C. Heath and Co.

Boggs, T.H.  1926 The Orientals on the Pacific Coast. Queens Quarterly 33: 311+324.

Bopp, Franz, defendant: U.S. vs F. Bopp et al.  1917 District Court of the U.S., Southern Division of the Northern  District of California before Hon. Wm. C. Van Fleet. (The Ghadar  Trial). microfilm (seven reels) University of British Columbia.

Bose, Arun Coomer  1965 Indian Nationalist Agitations in the United States and Canada till  the Arrival of Hardayal in 1911. Journal of Indian History  43: 227+239.

Bose, Arun Coomer  1971 Indian Revolutionaries Abroad, 1905+1922. Patna Bharati Bhawan.

Bose, Subhindra  1914 Exclusion of the Indians from America. Modern Review 15: 642.

Bose, Subhindra  1915 American Impressions of a Hindu Student. Forum 53: 251+257.

Bose, Subhindra  1919 Asian Immigration into the United States. Modern Review 25:  521+526.

Bowerman, Jennifer  1980 East Indians in Alberta: A Human Rights Viewpoint. @un(In)  G. Hirabayashi and K.V. Ujimoto, eds., Visible Minorities  and Multiculturalism: Asians in Canada. Toronto: Butterworths,  pp. 181+192.

Bradfield, Helen H.  1970 The East Indians of Yuba City: A Study of Acculturation. M.A.  Dissertation, California State University, Sacramento.

Braun, Wendy  1983 Multiculturalism Practice from Ideals to Reality, An Examination  of Work with an East Indian Couple. M.A. Thesis, School of Social  Work, University of British Columbia.

Bristow, M. and B. Adams and C. Periera  1975 Uganda Asians in Britain, Canada and India: Some Characteristics  and Resources. New Community 4(2): 155+166.

British Columbia Legislative Assembly  1927 Report on Oriental Activities within the Province. Victoria: Charles  Banfield.

British Columbia Public Service Bulletin  1928 East Indian Population... (April+May):3. Victoria, Queen's Printer.

British Columbia. Dept. of Labour  1917+1946 Annual Report. Victoria: Queen's Printer.

British Columbia. Prov. Library and Archives  1957 Ethnic Groups in B.C.: A Selected Bibliography based on a checklist  of Material in the Provincial Library and Archives. Victoria.

Broad, Isabella Ross  1913 An Appeal for Fair Play for the Sikhs in Canada. Victoria:  Victoria Society of Friends of the Hindu.

Brown, Emily C.  1975 Har Dayal: Hindu Revolutionary and Rationalist. Tucson: Arizona Univ.  Press.

Brown, Giles T.  1941 The Hindu Conspiracy and the Neutrality of the United States. M.A.  Dissertation History Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

Brown, Giles T.  1948 The Hindu Conspiracy, 1914+1917. Pacific Historical Review 17:  299+300.

Buchanan, R.F.  1908 The West and the Hindu Invasion. Overland Monthly 51: 308+313.

Buchignani, Norman  1976 Fijians as 'Punjabs': the Social and Self Identities of Fijian East  Indians in Vancouver. Presentation WASA Annual Meeting, Calgary.

Buchignani, Norman  1976 The Weberian Thesis in India. Archives de Sciences Sociales  des Religions 42: 17+33.

Buchignani, N.  1977a A Review of the Historical and Sociological Literature  on East Indians in Canada. Canadian Ethnic Studies 9(1):  86+108.

Buchignani, N.  1977b Immigration, Establishment, and the Management of  Ethnic Identity. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Sociology  and Anthropology. Vancouver: Simon Fraser University.

Buchignani, Norman  1978 Accommodation, Adaptation, and Policy: Aspects of the South Asian  Experience in Canada. @un(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds.,  Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Asians in Canada, pp. 30+71,  Guelph: University of Guelph.

Buchignani, N.  1979a Recent East Indian immigration to British Columbia: Identity  Formation among Fijians. @un(In) J. Elliott ed., Two Nations Many  Cultures: Ethnic Groups in Canada. Scarborough: Prentice+Hall.,  pp. 325+337.

Buchignani, Norman  1979b The Effect of Canadian Immigration on the Political Economy of Fiji.  @un(In) O. Mehmet, ed. Poverty and Social Change in Southeast Asia.  Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, pp. 265+283.

Buchignani, Norman  1979c Social Identities and Their Interpretation: Fijian East Indians in  British Columbia. @un(In) G. Hirabayashi and K.V. Ujimoto, eds.,  Proceedings of the First Colloquium on Asians in Canada, pp.  163+198, Guelph: University of Guelph.

Buchignani, Norman  1980a South Asians and the Ethnic Mosaic: An Overview. Canadian Ethnic  Studies 11(1):48+68.

Buchignani, Norman  1980b The Social and Self Identities of Fijian Indians in Vancouver.  Urban Anthropology 9(1): 75+97.

Buchignani, Norman  1980c Accommodation, Adaptation, and Policy: Dimensions of the South Asian  Experience in Canada. @un(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds.,  Visible Minorities and Multiculturalism: Asians in Canada,  pp. 121+150 Scarborough, Ontario: Butterworths.

Buchignani, Norman  1980d Culture or Identity: Addressing Ethnicity in Canadian Education.  McGill Journal of Education 15(1): 79+93.

Buchignani, Norman  1980d The Political Evolution of Sikhs in Canada before World War I.  Indian Journal of Political Science 41(3): 379+412.

Buchignani, Norman  1982a Canadian Ethnic Research and Multiculturalism. Journal of Canadian  Studies 17(1): 16+34.

Buchignani, Norman  1982b Perceptions of Racial Discrimination in Calgary: A Situation Report.  Prepared for the Multiculturalism Directorate, Secretary of State,  Ottawa. 167pp.

Buchignani, Norman  1983 Determinants of Fijian Indian Social Organization in Canada. @UN(In)  G. Kurian and R. Srivastava, eds., Overseas Indians: A Study in  Adaptation. pp. 68+89.

Buchignani, Norman  1984 South Asians in Canada: Accommodation and Adaptation. @UN(In)  R. Kannungo, ed., South Asians and the Canadian Mosaic, pp. 157+180,  Montreal: Kala Bharati Foundation.

Buchignani, Norman  1985a Social Science Research on Asians in Canada. @un(In) K.V. Ujimoto  and J. Naidoo, eds. Asian Canadians: Aspects of Social Change,  pp. 1+29, Guelph: University of Guelph.

Buchignani, Norman  1985b South Asians in Alberta. @un(In) H. Palmer and T. Palmer, eds.,  The People of Alberta: Portraits of Cultural Diversity. Calgary:  Western Producer, pp. 413+436.

Buchignani, Norman  1985c South Asians. New Canadian Encyclopedia. Edmonton: Hurtig,  3:1736+1737.

Buchignani, Norman  1985d Sikhism. New Canadian Encyclopedia. Edmonton: Hurtig, 3: 1695+1696.

Buchignani, Norman  1985e A Demographic Analysis of South Asians in Canada. Prepared  for the Secretary of State (Ottawa), 50 pp., with 250 pp.  of statistical tables.

Buchignani, Norman  1986a An Estimate of the Sikh Population of Canada. mimeo.

Buchignani, Norman  1986b The Komagata Maru Incident. Horizons Canada 5(51):1214+1219.

Buchignani, Norman  1987a Fijian Indians in Vancouver: The Structural Determinants of a  New Community. N.Y.: AMS Press. in press.

Buchignani, Norman  1987b Conceptions of Sikh Culture in the Development of a Comparative  Analysis of the Sikh Diaspora. @un(In) M. Israel and  J. O'Connell, eds., Sikh Religion and History in the  Twentieth Century. Toronto: University of Toronto  Press., 35. pp. in press

Buchignani, Norman  1987c Social Science Research on South Asians and Canada: Retrospect and  Prospect. @un(In), Milton Israel, ed., The South Asian Diaspora in  Canada. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario,  pp. 113+141.

Buchignani, Norman and Doreen Indra  1981a The Political Organization of South Asians in Canada. @un(In) J.  Dahlie and T. Fernando, eds. Ethnicity, Power and Politics in  Canada. Toronto: Methuen. pp. 202+232.

Buchignani, Norman and Doreen Indra  1981b Inter+group conflict and community solidarity: Sikhs and South  Asian Fijians in Vancouver. Canadian Journal of Anthropology  1(2): 149+157.

Buchignani, Norman and Doreen Indra  1985 Continuous Journey: A Social History of South Asians in Canada.  Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.

Buchignani, Norman and Doreen Marie Indra  1987 Key Issues in Canadian+Sikh Ethnic and Race Relations, and Their  Implications for the Study of the Sikh Diaspora. @un(In) G. Barrier  and V. Dusenbery, eds. The Sikh Diaspora. Ann Arbor: University of  Michigan Press. in press.

Button, R.A.  1964 Sikh Settlement in the Lower Mainland of B.C. (1904+1964). B.A.  Graduating Essay, Dept. of Geography, University of British  Columbia.

California. Government  1953 Report of the Senate Fact+Finding Committee of the Un+American  Activities to the 1953 Regular California Legislature. Sacramento  California State Printing Office. pp.213+246.

California. Government. State Board of Control  1922 California and the Oriental: Japanese, Chinese, and Hindus.  Sacramento California: State Printing Office.

Campbell, Michael G.  1977 The Sikhs of Vancouver: A Case Study in Minority+Host Relations.  M.A. Thesis, Political Science, University of British Columbia.  Microfiche #34775

Canada and India  1915 Vol.1(1), July. 1(2), October. @UN(In) R.O. Pt.2 and Ontario Public  Archives.

Canada and India  1915+16 Kartar Singh, ed., Toronto. (biweekly).

Canada India Committee  1915a A Call for Canadian Justice. Toronto.

Canada India Committee  1915b The Hindu Case. Toronto.

Canada India Committee  1916 India's Appeal to Canada or An Account of Hindu Immigration to  the Dominion. Toronto.

Canada India Committee  n.d. A Syllabus of Its Objectives, Principles and Procedure. Toronto.

Canada Pakistan Association of Ottawa+Hull  1976 A History of People of Pakistani Origin in Canada. Ottawa.

Canada. Board of Review (Immigration) on Charges Concerning Illegal Entry of Aliens into Canada.  1938a Interim report and Supplement. Vancouver: typescript.

Canada. Board of Review (Immigration) on Charges Concerning Illegal Entry of Aliens into Canada.  1938b Report, October 1938, Ottawa: King's Printer.

Canada, Department of Employment and Immigration, Research Projects Group  1977 Ugandan Asian Experience. Ottawa: Government Printers.

Canada. Department of Interior  1908 The East Indian in B.C.: A Proposal to send some to  British Honduras. Dominion Archives. Pamphlet 3413.

Canada. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Census Division.  1934 Orientals, 10 years of age or over, Gainfully Employed in the  Province of British Columbia Census, 1931 (7th Census of  Canada). Bulletin 41.

Canada. Employment and Immigration  1977 Ugandan Asian Experience. Ottawa: Government Printers.

Canada. Manpower and Immigration  1970 Immigration, Migration, and Ethnic Groups in Canada: A  Bibliography of Research 1964+1968. Ottawa: Information Canada.

Canada. Manpower and Immigration  1975a The Immigration Program. Ottawa: Information Canada.

Canada. Manpower and Immigration  1975b Three Years in Canada. Ottawa: Information Canada.

Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs  1906 Toronto: Annual Review Publishing Co.  pp.285, 295+96.  1907 pp.284+286, 289, 294+296  1908 pp.119+120  1914 pp.116+119  1922 pp.198+203  1924 pp.115+119

Canadian India Times  1968+ Islington, Ontario (biweekly). Previously India Times (1967+8).

Canadian Sikh  1961+3 Vol.1(1) to 3(1). Richmond, B.C. Gian Singh, ed.

Carter, Don  1951 Our Sikh Neighbors. Vancouver Sun. Sept. 22, Magazine Section: 6+7.

Cassin, A. Marguerite  1977 Class and Ethnicity: The Social Organization of Working Class East  Indians in Vancouver. M.A. Thesis. University of British Columbia.

Cassin, A. Marguerite and A. Griffith  1981 Class and Ethnicity: Producing the Difference that Counts.  Canadian Ethnic Studies 8(1): 109+130.

Ch'eng, Tien+Fang  1931 Oriental Immigration in Canada. Shanghai: Commercial Press.

Chadney, James G.  1975 The Joint Family as a Structure and Process. Journal of Social  Thought. 1(1): 17+22.

Chadney, James G.  1976 The Vancouver Sikhs: An Ethnic Community in Canada. Ph.D.  Dissertation, Michigan State University.

Chadney, James G.  1977 Demography, Ethnic Identity and Decision+making: The Case of the  Vancouver Sikhs. Urban Anthropology 6(3):187+204.

Chadney, James  1984 The Sikhs of Vancouver. New York: AMS Press.

Chakraverti, Robindra C.  1968 The Sikhs of El Centro: A Study in Social Integration. Ph.D.  Dissertation University of Minnesota.

Chandra, K.V.  1973 Racial Discrimination in Canada. San Francisco: R and E Research  Associates.

Chandra, Ram  1916 Exclusion of Hindus in America due to British Influence. San  Francisco: Ghadr Publishing Co.

Chandresekhar, S.  1944 Indian Immigration in America. Far East Survey 13: 138+143.

Chandresekhar, S.  1945a The Indian Community in the United States. Far East Survey 14:  147+149.

Chandresekhar, S.  1945b Indian Emigration to America. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chawla, Saroj  1971 Indian Children in Toronto: A Study in Socialization. M.A. Thesis,  Sociology. York University, Toronto.

Corbett, David C.  1957 Canada's Immigration Policy: A Critique. Toronto: University  of Toronto Press.

Coward, Harold and David Goa  1983 Religious Experience of the South Asian Diaspora in Canada. Paper  given at "Research on the South Asian Diaspora",  Graduate Centre for South Asian Studies, University of  Toronto.

Dabydeen, C.  1980 Compromise and Self+Expression: Problems of the Third World Writer  in Canada. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds.,  Visible Minorities and Multiculturalism. Toronto:  Butterworths. pp.329+334.

Dadabhay, Yusuf  1954 Circuitous Assimilation Among Rural Hindustanis in California.  Social Forces 33: 138+141.

Daniels, Roger  1974 American Historians and East Asian Immigrants. Pacific Historical  Review 43: 449+472.

Dardar, Nari P.  1963 The Treatment of India in the American Press, A Case Study.  M.A. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Darlings, Malcolm Lyall  1928 The Punjab Peasant in Prosperity and Debt. London: Oxford University  Press.

Das, Rajani Kant  1923 Hindustani Workers on the Pacific Coast. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Das, Taraknath  1909 An Open Letter to Count Leo Tolstoy in Reply to his "Letter to a  Hindoo", New York: Free Hindustani. 47pp.

Das, Taraknath  1912 Our Welcome to the Chinese Republic. Span of Life 5(3).

Das, Taraknath  1924 What is at the Back of the Anti+Asianism of the Anglo+Saxon World?  Modern Review 35: 262+268.

Das, Taraknath  1931 India in World Politics. Calcutta: Sarasvaty Press.

Dayal, Har  1911 India in America. The Modern Review. 10 (July): 1+11.

Denton, J.  1975 Indian Immigrants and Impression Management of Ethnic Stigma.  Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 12: 65+71.

Deodhar, Shyama  1954 The Treatment of India in American Social Studies Textbooks,  1921+1952. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan.

Deol, G.S.  1966 Voyage of the Komogata Maru and the Ghadr Movement. People's  Path 2(8): 7+19.

Deol, G.S.  1969 The Role of the Ghadr Party in the Indian National Movement.  Jullundur: Sterling Publishers.

Dhami, Sahdu Singh  1943 The Sikhs and their Religion: A Struggle for Democracy. Vancouver:  Khalsa Diwan Society.

Dhami, Sahdu Singh  1969 Discovering the New World. Queen's Quarterly 76: 200+212.

Dharmavira  1970 Lala Har Dayal and the Revolutionary Movement of His Times. New  Delhi: Indian Book Company.

Dignan, D.K.  1971 Hindu Conspiracy in Anglo+Indian Relations. Pacific Historical  Review 40: 57+77.

Dodd, Balbinder Singh  1972 Social Change in Two Overseas Sikh Communities. B.A. Honours Essay,  Sociology Department, University of British Columbia.

Dodd, W.D.  1907 The Hindu in the Northwest. World Today 13: 1157+1160.

Dossa, Parin  1983 The Shi'a+Isma'ili Muslim Community in British Columbia.  @UN(In) Charles P. Anderson @i<et al>, eds., Circle of  Voices. British Columbia: Oolichan Books. pp.232+239.

Dossa, Parin  1985

Duggal, Prakash V.  1969 The Treatment of India in Selected American Social Studies Textbooks,  1953+1968. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan.

Dusenbery, Verne A.  1980 Hierarchy, Equality and the Assertion of Sikh Identity in North  America. Presentation at the 56th Annual Central States  Anthropological Assoc. Meetings.

Dusenbery, Verne A.  1981 Canadian Ideology and Public Policy: The Impact on Vancouver Sikh  Ethnic and Religious Adaptation. Canadian Ethnic Studies  8(3):101+120.

Dusenbery, Verne A.  1983 Gora Sikhs: A New Sikh Caste? Presented at the 35th Annual Meeting  of the Association for Asian Studies. San Francisco.

Dusenbery, Verne A.  1987a On the Moral Sensitivites of Sikhs in North America. @b(In)  Owen Lynch and P. Kolenda, eds., Consuming Passions: Emotion and  Feeling in Indian Culture. in press.

Dusenbery, Verne A.  1987b The Sikh Person, The Khalsa Panth and Western Sikh Converts.  @b(In) J.K. Lele, @b(et al), eds., Boeings and Bullock Carts:  Rethinking India's Restructuring. Leiden: E. Brill, in press.

Dutton, D.G.  1982 National Report on Race Relations. Vancouver, B.C.

Dwivedi, O.P.  1977 Indian Immigrants and the Mass Media: Some Reflections. Toronto:  Indian Immigrant Aid Services.

East Indian Lumber Worker  1950+1953 Vancouver (monthly).

Ferguson, Ted  1975 A White Man's Country: An Exercise in Canadian Prejudice. Toronto:  MacMillan.

Fernando, Tissa  1979 East African Asians in Western Canada: the Ismaili Community.  New Community 7(3): 361+368.

Filteau, C.  1980 The Role of the Concept of Love in the Hindu Family Acculturation  Process. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Visible  Minorities and Multiculturalism. Toronto: Butterworths. pp.289+300.

Francis, R.A.  1952 B.C.'s Turbaned Tribe. Canadian Business 25 (February): 44+45.

Free Hindusthan  1980+? Taraknath Das, ed. Vancouver, Seattle.

Frideres, J.S.  ++++ Discrimination in Western Canada. Race 15(2).

Frideres, J.S.  1978 British Canadian Attitudes Toward Minority Ethnic Groups in Canada.  Ethnicity, 5(1): 20+32.

Gallacher, David T.  1969 City in Depression: The Impact of the Years 1929+34 on Greater  Victoria B.C. M.A. Thesis, University of Victoria.

Gallup Omnibus Study  1981 Conducted for the Minister of State for Multiculturalism.

Gammons, E.  1920 Invincible India. San Francisco: Hindustani Ghadar.

Gardner, Ray  1958 When Vancouver turned its back on the Sikhs. Macleans (November 8):  63+68.

Ghose, S.N.  1919 Deportation of Hindu Politicals. Dial 67: 145+147.

Ghosh, Ratna  1981a Minority Within a Minority: On Being South Asian and Female in  Canada. @UN(In) G. Kurian and R. Ghosh eds., Women in the Family  and the Economy. Westport Conn.: Greenwood Press. pp.413+426.

Ghosh, Ratna  1981b Social and Economic Integration of of South Asian Women in  Montreal, Canada. @UN(In) G. Kurian and R. Ghosh, eds., Women in  the Family and the Economy. Westport Conn.: Greenwood Press.  pp.59+71.

Ghosh, Ratna  1983 Sarees and the Maple Leaf: Indian Women in Canada. @UN(In)  G. Kurian and R. Srivastava, eds., Overseas Indians: A  Study in Adaptation. pp. 90+99.

Gill, Charan  1983 Racism and Human Rights: A Study Focussing on the Sikh Community.  M.A. Thesis, School of Social Work, University of British Columbia.

Gill, Kuldip  1982 A Canadian Sikh Wedding as Cultural Performance. M.A. Thesis,  University of British Columbia.

Gill, Nash  1971 The East Indian People of B.C. Vancouver Human Rights Council.

Government of India  1914 Report of the Komogata Maru Commission of Inquiry. Calcutta.

Government of India  1918 Sedition Committee Report CD2884, Home Department. Calcutta: New Age  Publishers. pp.141+161.

Grace, Elizabeth Ross  1908 East Indian Immigration. Westminster Hall Magazine 3(3): 10+12.

Grant, Kenneth James  1915 Among the Hindus of British Columbia. Missionary Messenger.  pp.106+109.

Grant, Kenneth James  1923 My Missionary Memories. Halifax: Imperial Publishing Co. Ltd.

Hallet, Mary E.  1972 A Governor+General's View on Oriental Immigration to B.C.,  1904+1911. B.C. Studies 14: 51+72.

Hamilton, James H. (pseud. Captain Kettle)  1933 Western Shores. Vancouver: Progress Publishing Co.

Handa, Arvind  ++++ Conversations with East Indian Youth. Toronto: Indian Immigrant Aid  Services.

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Singh, Amarjit  1978 Adjustment in Multicultural Canada: A Strategy. Toronto:  Indian Immigrant Aid Services.

Singh, Anup  1944 A Quota for India Too. Asia and the Americas (April) p.157.

Singh, Baba Gurdit  n.d. Voyage of the Komogata Maru, or: India's Slavery Abroad.  1st Edition: Calcutta, Arya Press.

Singh, Bhai Jodh  1946 The Message of the Sikh Faith. Vancouver: Shalsa Diwan Society.

Singh, Dave  1975 Some Factors in the Relationship Between the Police and East  Indians. Vancouver: B.C. Police Commission.

Singh, Diwaker Prasad  1964 American Official Attitudes Towards the Indian Nationalist  Movement, 1905+1929. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii.

Singh, Ganda  1970 The Sikhs of Canada and California: A Bibliography. Offprint from  The Punjab Past and Present 4(2), October, 1970.

Singh, Gurdial  1946 East Indians in the United States. Sociology and Social Research  30: 208+216.

Singh, Gurdial  1949 East Indians in the U.S. S. and Social Research.

Singh, J.B.  1980 Perceptions of Prejudice Experienced by International  Students. M.A. Dissertation, Educational Theory, University  of Toronto.

Singh, Jarnial, J. Spellman, and H. Singh  1979 Proceedings of the Sikh Conference, 1979. Willowdale,  Ontario: Sikh Social and Educational Society.

Singh, Kushwant  1966a A History of the Sikhs. Vol.1. Princeton: Princeton University  Press.

Singh, Kushwant  1966b A History of the Sikhs. Vol.2. Princeton: Princeton University  Press.

Singh, Kushwant and Satindra Singh  1966 Ghadar 1915: India's First Armed Revolution. New Delhi:  R and K Publishing House.

Singh, Pardaman  1922 Ethnological Epitome of the Hindustanees of the Pacific  Coast. Pacific Coast Khalsa Diwan Society, Stockton, California.

Singh, Randhir  1945 Ghadr Heroes: Forgotten Story of the Punjab Revolutionaries  of 1914+15. Bombay: People's Publishing House.

Singh, Rattan  1929 A Brief History of the Hindustan Ghadar Party. San Francisco:  Hindustan Ghadar.

Singh, Saint Nihal  1906 Nothing to Fear from Hindu "Invasion". Vancouver Province  November 14, p.6

Singh, Saint Nihal  1907 The Sikhs in Canada, or Grievances of East Indians.  Canadian Magazine 30(November): 57+60.

Singh, Saint Nihal  1908a Indians in America, I. Modern Review 3:204+7.

Singh, Saint Nihal  1908b Indians in America, II: Educated Indians in America.  Modern Review 3: 311+314.

Singh, Saint Nihal  1909 The Picturesque Immigrant from India's Coral Strand. Out West  30(1): 43+54.

Singh, Saint Nihal  1912 The Position of the Hindu in Canada. British Columbia  Magazine 8: 664+668.

Singh, Saint Nihal  1912 The Sikh's Struggle Against Strangulation. London: Fortnightly  Review January+June: 82+90.

Singh, Saint Nihal and J. Barclay Williams  1907 Canada's New Immigrant: the Hindu. Canadian Magazine 28(4):  383+391.

Singh, Sindar and L.W.H.  1911c The Sikhs in Canada. Canadian Club of Toronto Addresses:  December 28.

Singh, Sundar  1916 India's Appeal to Canada. Toronto: Canada India Committee.

Singh, Sundar and L.W.H.  1911a A Summary of the Hindu Question and its Results in B.C. Victoria:  Victoria Society of Friends of the Hindu.

Singh, Sundar and L.W.H.  1911b Sikhs in Canada. Empire Club of Canada Addresses: 112+116.

Sinha, P.B.  1975 Indian National Liberation Movement and Russia (1905+17).  New Delhi: Sterling.

Sirha, Nand Singh  1913a Indians in Canada: A Pitiable Account of Their Hardships  by One Who Comes from the Place and Knows Them. Modern  Review 14: 140+149.

Sirha, Nand Singh, Balwant Singh and Narian Singh  1913 Indians in Canada. Indian Review 14: 453+456.

Smillie, Emmaline E.  1923 An Historical Survey of the Indian Migration within the  Empire. Canadian Historical Review 4(3): 217+257.

Smith, Marian W.  1944 Sikh Settlers in Canada. Asia and the Americas 44(8): 359+64.

Social Planning Council of Metro Toronto  1979 Metro's Suburbs in Transition. Part 1: Evolution and Overview.

Social Planning Council of Metro Toronto  1980 Working Papers for Full Employment: Social Policy  Perspectives on Employment.

Solanki, Ratilal  1973 Americanization of Immigrants: A Study in Acculturation of  Asian+Indians in the State of Colorado and the Educational  Implications. Ph.D. Dissertation University of Denver.

Speary, Earle E. and Willes M. West  1920 German Plots and Intrigues in the U.S. during the Period of Our  Neutrality. U.S. Government Red, White and Blue Series #10.  Washington: Committee on Public Information.

Spellman, John W.  1959 The International Extensions of Political Conspiracy as Illustrated  by the Ghadar Party. Journal of Indian History 37: 23+45.

Srivastava, Ram P.  1975 Family Organization and Change Among the Overseas Indians with  Special Reference to Indian Immigrant Families of British  Columbia, Canada. @UN(In) G. Kurian, ed., Family in India:  A Regional View. The Hague: Mouton.

Srivastava, Ram P.  1983 The Evolution of Adaptive Strategies: East Indians in Canada.  @UN(In) G. Kurian and R. P. Srivastava, eds., Overseas  Indians: A Study in Adaptation. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Stasiulis, D.  1979 A Sociopolitical Analysis of the South Asian Community of Toronto.  Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Asian  Studies Association.

Stasiulis, D.  1980 The political structuring of ethnic community action:  A Reformation. Canadian Ethnic Studies 12(3): 18+44.

Stasiulis, D.  1984 Racism, Anti+Racist Struggle and the Canadian State. Canadian  Sociology and Anthropology Association 19th Annual Meeting.

Stern, Bernard  1956 American Views of India and Indians, 1957+1900. Ph.D.  Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Stevens, Henry H.  1911 The Oriental Problem, Dealing with Canada as Affected by the  Immigration of Japanese, Hindus and Chinese. Vancouver.

Subramanian, Indira A.  1976 East Indians in Canada. Toronto: Indian Immigrant Aid Services.

Subramanian, Indira A.  1977a Identity Shift: Post+Migration Changes in Identity Among First  Generation East Indian Immigrants in Toronto. Ph.D. Dissertation,  University of Toronto.

Subramanian, Indira A.  1977b The East Indian Child in Toronto Schools: A Cultural  Background and Psychological Profile. Toronto: Toronto  Boards of Education.

Sugimoto, Howard H.  1966 Japanese Immigration, the Vancouver Riots, and Canadian  Diplomacy. M.A. Dissertation, Department of History, University  of Washington.

Sumida, Rigenda  1935 The Japanese in British Columbia. M.A. Dissertation, University of  British Columbia.

Suri, Vidya Sagar  1968 A Brief Biographical Sketch of Sohan Lal Pathak. Patiala: Punjab  University.

Swadesh Sevak  1910 Guru Datt Kumar, ed., Vancouver and Seattle.

Tepper, Elliot L.  1982 Discrimination and Visible Minorities: A Summary of National  Perceptions. Ottawa: Multiculturalism Directorate, Secretary of  State.

Tolmie, J. Ross  1929 The Orientals in B.C. B. A. History, University of British Columbia.

Trades and Labour Council of Canada  1930 Proceedings.

Ubale, Bhausaheb  1977 Equal Opportunity and Public Policy: A Report on Concerns of the  South Asian Community regarding their place in the Canadian Mosaic.  Toronto: Indian Immigrant Aid Services.

University of British Columbia, Continuing Education  1973 An Introduction to East Indian Culture. Vancouver:  typescript.

University of British Columbia. Library Special Collections  1966 Bibliography of East Indian Immigration into Canada, 1880+  1920. Vancouver: typescript.

University of British Columbia, Library Special Collections  n.d. East Indians in British Columbia. A File of Newspaper Clippings.

Victoria Society of Friends of the Hindu  1911 A Summary of the Hindu Question. Victoria.

Vidyarthi, Ram Sharam  1970 Komogata Maru Ki Samudri Yatra (Sea Voyage of the  Komogata Mary. Mirjapur: Krantikari Publishing Co.

Wagner, P.L., ed.  1981 Ethnic Vancouver: Essays in Cultural Geography. Department of  Geography, Simon Fraser University.

Waiz, S.A.  1934 Indians Abroad Directory. Bombay: Imperial Indian  Citizenship Association.

Wakil, P.A.  1974 The Immigrant Indo+Pakistani Family: A Case Study Research  Note. 8th World Congress of Sociology. Toronto.

Wakil, S.P., C. M. Siddique and F.A. Wakil  1981 Between Two Cultures: A Study Of Socialization of Children  Of Immigrants. Journal of Marriage and the Family,  (November): 929+940.

Walhouse, Freda  1961 The Influence of Minority Ethnic Groups on the Cultural  Geography of Vancouver. M.A. Dissertation, Geography  Department, University of British Columbia.

Ward, N.L.  1925 Oriental Missions in British Columbia. Westminster: Society  for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.

Ward, W. P.  1973 White Canada forever: British Columbia's response to  Orientals, 1858+1914. Ph.D. Dissertation. Department  of History. Queen's University.

Ward, William Peter  1973 White Canada Forever: British Columbia's Response to Orientals,  1858+1914. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of History, Queens  University.

Ward, William Peter  1974 The Oriental Immigrant and Canada's Protestant Clergy.  B.C. Studies 22: 40+55.

Wenzel, Lawrence A.  1966 The Identification and Analysis of Certain Value Orientations  of Two Generations of East Indians in California. Ed.D.  University of the Pacific.

Wenzel, Lawrence A.  1969 The Rural Punjabis of California: A Religio+Ethnic Group. Phylon 29:  245+56.

Westwood, Marvin J.  1982 A Cross Cultural Comparison of East Indian and Anglo+European  Expectations of Counselling. International Journal for the  Advancement of Counselling 4.

Wherry, E.M.  1907 Hindu Immigrants in America. Missionary Review 30: 918+919.

Williams, J.B.  1907 Canada's New Immigrants. Canadian Magazine 28 (February):  383+391.

Wilson, J.D. and J. Dahlie  1975 Negroes, Finns, Sikhs: Education and Community Experience in  British Columbia. @UN(In) Paul M. Mingus, ed., Sounds Canadian:  Languages and Cultures in Multi+Ethnic Society. Toronto: Peter  Mattin Assoc. pp.76+92.

Wood, John  1978 East Indians and Canada's New Immigration Policy. Canadian  Public Policy 4(4): 547+67.

Wood, John  1981 A Visible Minority Votes: East Indian Electoral Behavior  in the Vancouver South Provincial and Federal Elections of 1979.  @UN(In) J. Dahlie and T. Fernando, eds., Ethnicity, Power and  Politics in Canada. Toronto: Methuen. pp.177+201.

Wood, John R.  1983 East Indians and Canada's New Immigration Policy. @UN(In)  G. Kurian and R. Srivastava, eds., Overseas Indians: A  Study in Adaptation. pp. 3+29.

Wood, Marjorie  1980 Hinduism in Vancouver: Adjustments in the Home, Temple and the  Community. @UN(In) K.V. Ujimoto, and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Visible  Minorities and Multiculturalism. Toronto: Butterworths. pp.277+289.

Wordsworth, James S.  1909 Strangers Within our Gates. Toronto: Missionary Society of  the Methodist Church, Canada. pp.188+9.

Wynne, Robert E.  1966 American Labour Leaders and the Vancouver Anti+Oriental Riot.  Pacific Northwest Quarterly 42(4): 172+179.

Yasmin, M.  1982 Retention of Ethnic Identity of the Bangladeshi Immigrants in the  Toronto Census, Metro Area. M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology,  University of Guelph. 

 

South Asian Publications

1985 Continuous Journey: A Social History of South Asians in Canada (co-author D. Indra, with Ram Srivastava) Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 250 pp. translated as Le voyage continu: histoire sociale des Sud-Asiatiques au Canada (1989).

 

1982 Perceptions of Racial Discrimination in Calgary: A Situation Report. Prepared for the Multiculturalism Directorate, Secretary of State, 167 pp. This was a survey of community perceptions of racial discrimination and institutional responses to it.

 

1983 Brief submitted to the Special Parliamentary Committee on the Participation of Visible Minorities in Canadian Society. 21 pp. This was considered by the Committee’s staff to be a pivotal brief, shifting their emphasis from prejudice to discrimination as the key issue.

 

1985 Demographic Analysis of South Asians in Canada. Prepared for the Secretary of State (Ottawa), 50 pp., with 250 pp. of statistical tables. This report was based on a special run of the 1981 census.

 

1977 A Review of the Historical and Sociological Literature on East Indians in Canada. Canadian Ethnic Studies 9(1):86-108.

1978 Accommodation, Adaptation, and Policy: Aspects of the South Asian Experience in Canada. In K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Asians in Canada. Guelph: University of Guelph, pp. 30-71.

1979 Social Identity Formation and Interpretation: Recent East Indian Immigration to British Columbia. In J. Elliott, ed., Two Nations, Many Cultures: Ethnic Groups in Canada. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall, pp. 325-37.

1979 Social Identities and Their Interpretation: Fijian East Indians in British Columbia. In G. Hirabayashi and K.V. Ujimoto, eds., Proceedings of the First Colloquium on Asians in Canada. Guelph: University of Guelph, pp. 163-198.

1979 Future Prospects of Research on Asian Canadians. In K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Asians in a Multicultural Society. Ottawa: Secretary of State, pp. 284-290.

1980 South Asians and the Ethnic Mosaic: An Overview. Canadian Ethnic Studies 11(1):48-68.

1980 Accommodation, Adaptation, and Policy: Dimensions of the South Asian Experience in Canada. In K.V. Ujimoto and G. Hirabayashi, eds., Visible Minorities and Multiculturalism: Asians in Canada. Scarborough, Ontario: Butterworths, pp. 121-150.

 

1980 The Political Evolution of Sikhs in Canada before World War I. Indian Journal of Political Science 41(3):379-412.

1981 The Political Organization of South Asians in Canada, 1904-1920. In J. Dahlie and T. Fernando, eds., Ethnicity, Power, and Politics in Canada. Toronto: Methuen, pp. 202-232.

1981 The Social and Self Identities of Fijian Indians in Vancouver. Urban Anthropology 9(1):75-98.

1981 Inter-group Conflict and Community Solidarity: Sikhs and South Asian Fijians in Vancouver. Canadian Journal of Anthropology 1(2):149-157. (joint author: Doreen M. Indra).

1983 Determinants of Fijian Indian Social Organization in Canada. In G. Kurian and R. Srivastava, eds., Overseas Indians: A Study in Adaptation. New Delhi: Vikas, pp. 68-89.

1983 Some Comments on the Elimination of Racism in Canada. Canadian Ethnic Studies 15(2):118-124.

1984 South Asians in Canada: Accommodation and Adaptation. In R. Kannungo, ed., South Asians and the Canadian Mosaic. Montreal: Kala Bharati Foundation, pp. 157-180.

1985 Social Science Research on Asians in Canada. In K.V. Ujimoto and J. Naidoo, eds. Asian Canadians: Aspects of Social Change. Guelph: University of Guelph, pp. 1-29.

1985 South Asians in Alberta. In H. Palmer and T. Palmer, eds., The People of Alberta: Portraits of Cultural Diversity. Calgary: Western Producer, pp. 413-436.

1985 South Asians. Canadian Encyclopaedia. Edmonton: Hurtig, 3:1736-1737.

1985 Sikhism. Canadian Encyclopaedia. Edmonton: Hurtig, 3:1695-1696.

1986 The Komagata Maru Incident. Horizons Canada 5(51):1214-1219.

1987 Research on South Asians in Canada: Retrospect and Prospect. In Milton Israel, ed., The South Asian Diaspora in Canada: Six Essays. Toronto: Ontario Multicultural History Society, pp. 113-141.

1988 Conceptions of Sikh Culture in the Development of a Comparative Analysis of the Sikh Diaspora. In Joseph T. O’Connell, Milton Israel, and W. Oxtoby, with W.H. McLeod and J.S. Grewal, eds. Sikh Religion and History in the Twentieth Century. Toronto: South Asian Studies, University of Toronto, pp. 276-295.

1988 South Asians. Canadian Encyclopaedia. 2nd ed. Edmonton: Hurtig. 4:2048-50.

1988 Sikhism. Canadian Encyclopaedia. 2nd ed. Edmonton: Hurtig. 4:2000-1.

1989 Key Issues in Canadian-Sikh Ethnic and Race Relations, and Their Implications for the Study of the Sikh Diaspora (with Doreen Indra). In N.G. Barrier and V. Dusenbery, eds. The Sikh Diaspora. New Delhi: Manohar, and Columbia, Mo.: South Asia Press, pp. 141-184.

1989 Social Science Research on Asians in Canada. In P. Krishnan, ed., Status and Identity in a Pluralistic Society: Essays in Honour of Gordon K. Hirabayashi. Edmonton: Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, pp. 107-122.

1989 Contemporary Research on People of Indian Origins in Canada. Sociological Bulletin 38(1):71-93.

1991 South and Southeast Asians of Canada. In David Levinson, ed. Encyclopaedia of World Cultures: North America. vol. 1. published for the Human Relations Area Files by G.K. Hall-Macmillan, pp 321-324.

1996 Sikhism. Canadian Encyclopaedia. 3rd edition. (update of 1988 version).

1996 South Asians. Canadian Encyclopaedia. 3rd edition. (update of 1988 version).